SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Manufacture calcined products in a rotary kiln 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
10461  Manufacture calcined products in a rotary kiln 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  36 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who have the responsibility of manufacturing clinker or burnt lime in a rotary kiln. People credited with this unit standard are able to
  • demonstrate knowledge relating to the operation and operating principles of rotary kilns;
  • prepare to start the kiln;
  • start the kiln;
  • operate the kiln and
  • shut down the kiln. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • Engineering Science at NQF Level 3
  • Communications at NQF Level 3
  • Applied mathematics at NQF Level 3
  • Follow health and safety practices in a cement manufacturing plant
  • Knowledge of related plant, equipment and processes
  • Understanding cement and lime quality 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the operation and operating principles of rotary kilns. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose of rotary kiln plant is described in terms of plant output (end product) meeting production requirements and product specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Operating components and the interlock systems of the kiln plant are described in relation to their function as a part of the process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The conversion of kiln feed to burnt product is explained in terms of the chemical and combustion processes that take place in the kiln and its associated equipment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Long dry or preheater or precalciner kilns
  • Coolers
  • Firing systems
  • Environmental control systems
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The type and function of various essential instruments used to achieve optimum plant performance, is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Temperature indicators
  • Pressure indicators
  • Gas analysers
  • Feed rate indicators
  • Torque, power and current indicators
  • Emission monitors and indicators
  • Alarm annunciator systems
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The thermal inter-relationships between kiln shell, refractories and tyres are explained in terms of potential damage to the kiln, mechanical components and refractories. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The range of faults that can occur during the operation is identified and remedial actions are described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. Knowledge of specific compliances and conditions related to regulatory authorities is demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. Specified lockout procedures, pertaining to the kiln plant and the consequences of non-compliance are explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to start the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. All lockouts have been removed, the area has been made safe for operation and appropriate documentation has been completed, in accordance with specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Equipment needed for the process has been tested, is in good working order and ready to run in accordance with specified requirements. Faults have been identified and remedial action taken in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The correct personal protective equipment is functional and worn in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Feed materials and fuel are available in terms of quantity and quality to suit plant requirements. The storage for processed materials is adequate for plant requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Fuel is available to suit plant requirements. The storage for processed materials is adequate for plant requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Pre-start inspections are conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Doors closed
  • Thermocouples in working order
  • Equipment and material removed
  • Instruments in working order
  • Feed
  • Fuel
  • Buildups of material in the process
  • Lubrication and coolants activated
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Start the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The kiln is heated and started according to specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Heating profile
  • Tyre creep
  • Feed rate
  • Balance between fuel oil and coal
  • Exhaust gas condition
  • Kiln shell temperature
  • Disposal of products not conforming to specifications
  • Quality parameters
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Hazards and associated risks pertaining to the start-up of the kiln, are dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Personal protective equipment is selected and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The kiln is running stably on its main drive motors. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Operate the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The kiln and ancillary equipment are operated such that product quality requirements are maintained and equipment performance is optimized in accordance with site requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Kiln
  • Feed system
  • Filters
  • Fuel system
  • Product transport systems
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Deviations from set parameters are identified, assessed and rectified timeously in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. All communication, both written and verbal, is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Short production interruptions caused by plant or power failures are dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The manufacturing process is monitored in accordance with product requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Shut down the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The kiln is shut down in accordance with site requirements. This includes emergency shutdown procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The thermal effect and stresses are monitored and managed according to site requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. Doors are opened for inspection once the kiln has cooled down sufficiently. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Hazards are identified and preventative and/or corrective action is taken in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Lockout procedures and safety regulations are complied with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. Personal protective equipment is selected and used in accordance with specified requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.

    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge, candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes to the standards described in the assessment criteria.. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate`s performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to identify substandard and hazardous conditions, assess and take appropriate action. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability and willingness of the candidate to accept and interpret work instructions correctly. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage himself / herself and his / her activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to indicate what methods, tools and personal protective equipment are required, and to communicate to fellow workers his / her intentions and the assistance required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to reconcile the information from visual and physical examinations and constantly evaluate the changing situation. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and / or language skills in the modes of oral and / or written presentations.
  • Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazards and substandard conditions will indicate his / her proficiency in effective communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, thus showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The use of science and technology is not relevant for this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to identify and refer anomalous behaviour to a specialist confirms his / her understanding of the fact that a specific observation, inference, action or decision may have a devastating effect. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Since the process of starting the kiln is time-consuming, it will involve handing over to another person in a shift rotation system, and also taking over from another person at the beginning of a new shift
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember, we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence - of the prescribed type and quality as specified in this unit standard - that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well-documented principles of assessment, namely appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal
  • Relevant Acts, e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act No. 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act No. 50/1991)
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SABS and other relevant standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines` Directives

    Site Specific
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  57692   Further Education and Training Certificate: Carbonate Materials Manufacturing Processes  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. PPC LTD SANDTON OFFICE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.