SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of the effects of brows on excavation stability 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
115552  Demonstrate understanding of the effects of brows on excavation stability 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are responsible for achieving brow stability through the installation of support.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Describe typical locations where brows are created and the mining practices that lead to the formation of brows.
  • Describe the effects of brows on excavation stability.
  • Describe factors influencing the choice of brow support.
  • Describe the hazards associated with installing support under brows.
  • Describe the measures employed to manage risks associated with brows. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:
  • National Introductory Certificate to Mining and Minerals (Level 1)
  • National Certificate in Strata Control (Level 2) 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Describe locations where brows are created and mining practices leading to formation of brows. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Describe typical locations where brows are created and the mining practices that lead to the formation of brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The typical locations where brows are created are provided. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Major geological structure intersections
  • Fall(s) of ground sites
  • Loss of keyblocks
  • Cross cutting of geological successions by excavations
  • Variable stoping and channel widths
  • Poor excavation profiling
  • Excavation breakaways
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The standard mining practices performed that lead to the formation of brows are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Undercutting of the excavation hangingwall/roof
  • Negotiation of geological structures that displace the orebody
  • Barring
  • Development of hangingwall/roof prospect cubbies
  • Establishment of multidimensional excavations
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The substandard mining practices performed that lead to the formation of brows are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Poor drilling and blasting practice
  • Inadequate surveying
  • Inappropriate support installation
  • Poor mining horizon control
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The consequences of not identifying, marking and supporting brows are explained in terms of the potential effect on occupational safety, health, equipment and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Describe the effects of brows on excavation stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The influence of brows on the dimensions of excavations and exposed planes of weakness is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of brows on the profile of excavations is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of brows on support effectiveness is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effect of brows on reduction of stability of workings is explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Describe factors influencing the choice of brow support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The factors influencing the choice of brow support are described in accordance with mine specific requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Dimensions
  • Shape and inclination
  • Catering for quasi-static and/or dynamic conditions
  • Condition of the rock mass, competency and presence of geological features
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The consequences of inappropriate support are described in terms of the potential effect on occupational safety, health, equipment and production. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate understanding of the hazards associated with installing support under brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    An explanation of the falls of ground hazards associated with the presence of brows is provided. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The increased probability of falls of ground from the brow edge is discussed. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The hazards associated with the action of installing support units under the brow are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The importance of implementing the correct mine specific procedures for supporting brows is explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Describe the measures employed to manage risks associated with brows. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The necessity of formulating specific strategies for managing hazards associated with brows is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The necessity of providing mine specific procedures for supporting brows is explained. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according to the moderation guidelines and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate's performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.

    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Health and safety 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to recognise potential sites where brows will be created and achieve and maintain mining stability with support confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability of the candidate to instruct fellow team members regarding support installation in an appropriate manner as a member in the bigger organisational structure confirms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The instruction of fellow team members regarding support installation indicates an ability to organise and manage. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The candidate must be able to recognise hazardous ground conditions and have knowledge of the appropriate action(s) to take. The candidate must be able to interpret and apply mine standards. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and / or language skills in the modes of oral and / or written presentations.
  • Note: The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of hazardous and sub-standard conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Note: The use of a variety of support types indicates effective use of science and technology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The candidate's ability to recognise that brows present a safety hazard to workers demonstrates understanding. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    Assessors should keep the following principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology

    Specified Requirements

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991)
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice
  • SANS and other relevant Standards
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/instructions

    Site-specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme
  • Managerial Instructions
  • Mine Standard Procedures
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks
  • Working Guides
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications


    Unit Standard Justification
  • Skills: Level 4: Wide-ranging scholastic or technical
  • Procedures: Level 2: Established and familiar.
  • Context: Level 3: Range of familiar.
  • Knowledge: Level 3: Some relevant theoretical
  • Information processing: Level 3: Interpretation of available information
  • Problem Solving: Level 2: Known solutions to familiar problems.
  • Orientation of activities: Level 3: Directed, with some autonomy.
  • Application of responsibility: Level 3: Significant responsibility for the quantity and quality of output, and possible responsibility for the output of others
  • Orientation of scope of responsibility: Level 3: Under general supervision quality checking.

    Average Level: 2.89
    Actual Level Assigned: 3


    Credits

    Total hours required by the learner to achieve the required outcome:
  • Classroom Teaching: 8 hours
  • On-The-Job Training: 16 hours
  • Total: 24 hours

    Credits Achieved: 24 / 10 = 2.4
    Credits Assigned: 2 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  60369   National Certificate: Strata Control Operations  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. DIGGERS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SERVICES 
    2. GEOSTRAT TRAINING 
    3. PALABORA COPPER (PTY) LTD 
    4. SAFETY TRAINING PRACTITIONERS PTY LTD 
    5. SIBANYE GOLD ACADEMY PROPRIETARY LIMITED 
    6. WESTERN PLATINUM MINE 
    7. XTRACT TRAINING SERVICES (SA)(PTY)LTD 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.