SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Understand basic electrical and mechanical engineering principles as applicable to air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
116461  Understand basic electrical and mechanical engineering principles as applicable to air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Air-conditioning Refrigeration and Ventilation 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
To enable learners to understand the basic electrical and mechanical engineering principles used to design and apply air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation equipment and systems. 

LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • A thorough understanding of the operation of air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation plants.
  • Identify materials, piping, fittings, jointing methods and insulation.
  • Identify and apply fixing methods for piping, ducting and equipment.
  • Demonstrate understanding of fundamentals of electricity and its applications.
  • Identify water reticulation systems, its components, accessories and controls.
  • Remove, install and service bearings.
  • Handle and place in position equipment used within the air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation industries. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Basic principles of mechanical engineering :
  • Engineering statics and dynamics : Forces, loads, friction, motion, momentum, energy, power, vibrations and balancing.
  • Strength of materials : Stress and strain, beams and columns
  • Fluid flow in pipes, ducts and across flat plates : Fluid properties, fluid statics, fluid power, forces developed by flowing fluids
  • Thermodynamics : Energy, basic concepts, open and closed systems, gases, heat transfer

    Basic principles of electrical engineering :
  • Electricity and magnetism : Basic concepts, types of electricity, current and magnetism
  • Electrical circuits : Fundamentals, wiring diagrams
  • Electric motors and protection : Types 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain and apply basic concepts of thermodynamics. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The phenomena of energy conversion and the need for high energy conversion efficiencies is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The nature and states of matter are explained in terms of atomic theory. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Solids, gases, liquids, molecular motion, phase change.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The important thermodynamic properties of a substance and their units of measurement are explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mass, volume, density, relative density, specific volume, force, weight, pressure, specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, internal energy
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The various laws of thermodynamics are defined and their importance explained and applied. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    First, second and third law, laws of Boyle, Charles and Dalton, ideal gas law
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Calculations are carried out relating to work, sensible and latent heat transfers and availability in energy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Open and closed systems are defined and the meaning of steady flow explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Calculations are carried out involving open and closed systems using steady flow principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fluids being heated or cooled, heat exchange systems
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The property changes of a gas undergoing typical thermodynamic processes are calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Heating, cooling, compression or expansion
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The modes of heat transfer are described and explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Convection, conduction, radiation
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The heat transfer rates by combined convection, conduction and radiation through float plates, series flat plates and thick and thin-walled pipes as well as insulated pipes are calculated. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain and apply basic concepts of fluid mechanics. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The various types and characteristics of fluids are described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Location, magnitude
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The basic properties of fluids are described in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Compressibility, surface tension, solubility
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Saturation vapour pressure and temperature are described and the relationship between them explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The basic principles of fluid statics relating to fluid pressure are stated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Pascal's principle
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The operation and use of piezometers and manometers is explained and pressures and pressure differences calculated from observed readings. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Gas-to-liquid, liquid-to-liquid, vertical and inclined
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    LStatic fluid forces are calculated and their location on surfaces determined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Location, magnitude
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The meaning of volume and mass-flow rates are explained and calculated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The continuity equation in typical fluid flow applications is explained 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fluid flow in pipes and ducts with varying cross section, with or without branches
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The Bernoulli equation for flow in an ideal fluid is explained and applied. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The variation in the various head terms for typical fluid flow is described. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Equations for fluid power are explained and their used demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mass flow rates and head, volume flow rate and pressures
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The use of fluid machinery equations is described and their use in calculations involving fluid machinery demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fluid power and head loss, efficiency, application of Bernoulli
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain and apply basic electrical-magnetic fundamentals. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Basic knowledge of simple atomic theory and its importance in the generation of electric current is demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The difference between direct and alternating current is explained and applied. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Electrical and electronic terms are defined and explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Volt, Amp, Ohm, Coulomb, Watt, power factor, power, emf
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The difference between series and parallel circuits is described and calculations involving these applications demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The principle of magnetism is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Permanent magnetism, induced magnetism, electromagnetism, magnetic field strength
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The theory and operation of various electric motors is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Induction, split-phase induction, capacitor-start induction, starting current, capacitor-start, shaded-pole, variable speed
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The various devices protecting motors from overloads and overheating are listed and described. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Fuses and circuit breakers, bimetal switches
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The aim of the various components in electrical circuits is explained and their magnitude calculated using the various electrical formulae. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Common types of electrical circuit controls are identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The ability of read and understand electrical and electronic circuitry is demonstrated. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The principles of electronic are explained and calculations on simple electronic circuits carried out. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Semi-conductors, diodes, rectifiers, inverters, transistors, amplifiers, transducers
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain and apply basic concepts of engineering mechanics and strength of materials. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The theory behind the determination of the magnitude and direction of the resultant of concurrent forces as well as its moment, is explained and demonstrated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Horizontal and vertical forces, moment of force, analytical and graphical solution
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The direction and magnitude of the equilibrium force of concurrent forces and the resulting moment is calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Members, joints, supports
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Reactions in supports induced by loads are calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Beams, frames, cantilevers, graphical and analytical solution
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The theory for determining forces inside frames is explained and calculations to determine their magnitude are carried out. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Analytical and graphical solutions, method of sections.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The phenomena of friction between bodies and materials is explained and the results demonstrated by means of calculations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Inclined plane friction, wedges, screw threads, flat and V-belt drives, disc and collar friction.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The theory of bodies in motion and the resulting forces is explained. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Displacement, velocity, acceleration, relative motion, rotational motion, centripetal acceleration, accelerating force, inertia force, centrifugal force, mass moment of inertia, connected masses
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The principle of conservation of momentum and energy is explained and calculations carried out. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Mechanical energy, work and power, mechanical machines and efficiency.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The phenomena of vibration in machinery and structures is explained and calculations carried out to determine their magnitude. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Forced and free vibration, simple harmonic motion, vibrating spring mass, resonance
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The principle of the unbalance produced by reciprocating and rotary forces is explained, and its magnitude and required balancing, determined. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Static and dynamic balance, bearing reactions
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The relationship between stress and strain is explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The stress and strain in members subject to various load conditions is calculated. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Pressure stress, thermal stress, rotational stress, combined bending and axial stress
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The phenomena of buckling in columns is explained and calculations carried to predict the extent of buckling. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Slender and thick column buckling
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Any person wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, who may appoint a moderator to be present at the assessment. The assessor must have knowledge and experience of air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    1. Names and functions :
    Basic concepts.

    2. Properties, descriptions, characteristics and attributes :
    Thermodynamic, fluid mechanic and materials properties.

    3. Sensory cues
    N/A

    4. Purpose of :
    Obtain basic understanding of the concepts in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and strength of materials required to design air conditioning, refrigeration and ventilation systems.

    5. Processes, events, causes and effects, implications :
    N/A

    6. Categories
    N/A

    7. Procedures and techniques :
    Systematic analytical calculation procedures.

    8. Regulations, legislation, agreements, policies, standards :
    N/A

    9. Theory : Rules, principles, laws :
    Laws of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and strength of materials.

    10. Relationships, systems.
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems
  • Identifying and solving problems using basic concepts. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage myself and my activities responsibly and effectively
  • Prepare and plan analytical procedures to solve problems. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically
  • Apply theories and physical laws. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems
  • Need for energy and its conservation. Optimum use of energy. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  48966   Further Education and Training Certificate: Air-conditioning, Refrigeration and Ventilation  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-03-12  Was MERSETA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. IFIHLILE TRAINING ACADEMY GAUTENG (PTY) LTD (Halfway House)(TP) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.