SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the connection between milk constituents, syneresis and moisture control in cheese curd 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
123303  Demonstrate an understanding of the connection between milk constituents, syneresis and moisture control in cheese curd 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food Manufacturing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9170  Demonstrate knowledge of the connection between milk constituents, synerisis and moisture control in cheese curd  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for anyone who has to manufacture cheese.
A person credited with this unit standard is able to demonstrate an understanding of:
  • The role of milk constituents during cheese manufacturing.
  • Syneresis in cheese curd.
  • The mineral content of cheese curd and its significance during cheese manufacturing.
  • Moisture control in cheese curd.

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
  • Communication and mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Knowledge of the nature and functional components of milk.
  • Knowledge of introductory chemistry and physics. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The context of this unit standard is described in the range statements under the assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the role of milk constituents during cheese manufacturing. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Milk constituents include:
  • Proteins (whey proteins and casein).
  • Water.
  • Lactose.
  • Fat.
  • Calcium, phosphate and other trace minerals.
  • Vitamins.
  • Enzymes, pigments and milk gasses. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The distribution of the main milk constituents between cheese curd and whey is described by referring to percentage composition. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The functions of the milk constituents during cheese manufacturing are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The extent of solubility of the different milk constituents in water is identified. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Cheese whey is defined according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Cheese curd is defined according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of syneresis in cheese curd. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Syneresis in cheese curd is defined according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of acidity (pH) on syneresis in cheese curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of curd particle size on syneresis in cheese curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of curd and whey temperature, as well as the period of time in the cheese vat on syneresis is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The influence of stirring the curd on syneresis in cheese curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation includes:
  • Stirring of curd in the whey.
  • Stirring of the curd after a part of the whey has been removed.
  • Stirring of the curd after all of the whey has been removed (dry stirring).
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the mineral content of cheese curd and its significance during cheese manufacturing. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Mineral content is defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition refers to:
  • The predominant minerals in cheese curd.
  • Factors that influence the retention or loss of minerals in cheese curds.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of physical changes in cheese curd on its mineral content is explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Physical changes include:
  • Shrinking of curd particles.
  • Structural changes of proteins.
  • Formation of a film around each curd particle.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of the chemical conversion of lactose to lactic acid in cheese curd on its mineral content is explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • The influence of the rate of this conversion.
  • The influence of the amount of lactic acid produced.
  • Diffusion of lactose and lactic acid between curd and whey.
  • False high titres on whey.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of the rate of heating during cheese manufacturing on the mineral content of the curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of moisture control in cheese curd. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The importance of moisture control in cheese curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The explanation refers to:
  • Legislative standards for maximum moisture-in-dry matter.
  • Maintaining a uniform product throughout the year.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The influence of milk composition on the final moisture content of cheese is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The influence of external pressure during cheese pressing on the final moisture content of cheese is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The relation between syneresis, mineral content and moisture control in cheese curd is explained according to standard dairy principles. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor or moderator respectively with the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA), or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal (provider-based) and external (ETQA-based) moderation of assessment, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment against this unit standard should encompass achievement of competencies described in the individual unit standard and may encompass achievement of integrated competencies with other unit standard(s).
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems in which response displays that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made.

    Evident in all specific outcomes:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the role of milk constituents during cheese manufacturing.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of syneresis in cheese curd.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of the mineral content of cheese curd and its significance during cheese manufacturing.
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of moisture control in cheese curd. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Evident in all specific outcomes:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the role of milk constituents during cheese manufacturing.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of syneresis in cheese curd.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of the mineral content of cheese curd and its significance during cheese manufacturing.
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of moisture control in cheese curd. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in all specific outcomes:

    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the role of milk constituents during cheese manufacturing.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of syneresis in cheese curd.
    3. Demonstrate an understanding of the mineral content of cheese curd and its significance during cheese manufacturing.
    4. Demonstrate an understanding of moisture control in cheese curd. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 9170, ''Demonstrate knowledge of the connection between milk constituents, synerisis and moisture control in cheese curd'', level 4, 3 credits.

    Supplementary Information:
  • Legal requirements:

    Where applicable, the following acts, current and future regulations and amendments should be considered:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972.
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977.
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993.
  • Other industry specific Acts.

    Where applicable, the following International and National Standards should be considered:
  • SANS 1049 - Food Hygiene Management.
  • SANS 10330 - Requirements for a HACCP system.
  • ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for organisations throughout the food chain.
  • ISO 9001 - Quality Management System - Requirements. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  50306   Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2018-07-26  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FMCG Training Solutions CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.