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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the functional components of milk 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
123348  Demonstrate an understanding of the functional components of milk 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Food Manufacturing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
9181  Demonstrate knowledge of the functional components of milk  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Complete 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for anyone who has to have knowledge and understanding of the components in milk and their functionality.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to demonstrate an understanding of:
  • The physical -chemical nature of milk components.
  • The chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • The nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • The functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • The changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products.

    This unit standard will contribute to the full development of the learner within the dairy manufacturing environment by providing recognition, further mobility and transportability within the field of manufacturing and assembly. The skills, knowledge and understanding demonstrated within this unit standard are essential for social and economic transformation and upliftment within the dairy manufacturing and processing environment. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Description of required skills:
  • Communication at NQF Level 4.
  • Mathematical literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Knowledge of introductory chemistry and physics.
  • Knowledge of the nature of milk. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The context of this unit standard is described in the range statements under the assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the physical-chemical nature of milk components. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The concept of an emulsion is defined according to standard chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The components of milk contributing to an emulsion are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The concept of a colloidal solution and colloidal suspension is defined according to standard chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The components of milk contributing to a colloidal solution and colloidal suspension are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The concept of a true solution is defined according to standard chemical and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The components of milk contributing to a true solution are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The concept of a buffer solution is defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The components of milk contributing to buffering capacity are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The purpose and principles of homogenisation of milk are explained according to standard dairy and physical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The principles of denaturation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a dairy context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The principles of oxidation are explained according to standard dairy principles and in a dairy context. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The chemical structure of an amino acid is described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The structural building blocks of proteins are described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The structural building blocks refer to:
  • Amino acids.
  • Peptides.
  • Poli-peptides.
  • Protein molecules.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The different protein structure forms found in nature are identified according to standard chemical and biological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The protein structure refers to:
  • Straight.
  • Coiled.
  • Folded.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The polarities of amino acids and its application during manufacturing are identified according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Classes of milk proteins are described according to standard chemical and dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The classes are described as:
  • Casein.
  • Whey proteins.
  • Immunoglobulins.
  • Membrane proteins in milk fat globules.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The chemical status of amino acids in neutral, acidic and alkaline solutions is explained according to standard chemical and food principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The natural inhibiting system (NIS) in milk is defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • The function of NIS.
  • The components of NIS.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The iso-electrical point of milk proteins is identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The importance of the iso-electrical point of milk proteins during product manufacturing is explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The phases in which whey and casein are dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The chemical structure of a fatty acid is described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The structural building blocks of fats are described according to standard chemical and biological principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The structural building blocks refer to:
  • Fatty acids.
  • Glycerol.
  • Fat globule membrane.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    The different states of fat and fatty acids are identified and described according to standard chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • Trans fatty acids.
  • Saturated fatty acids.
  • Unsaturated and poli-unsaturated fatty acids.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 14 
    The phases in which fat is dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Liquid and solid fat, relating it to temperature.
  • Fat-in-water emulsion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 15 
    The chemical structure of lactose is described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 16 
    The phase in which lactose is dispersed in milk are identified according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of proteins, fat and lactose in our diet is described according to standard biological and nutritional principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description refers to:
  • Tissue growth or maintenance.
  • Development of cells, organs and hormones.
  • Biological reactions.
  • Immune system.
  • Energy.
  • Sensory quality of food products.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The essential amino and fatty acids needed for adequate health and growth are identified according to standard dairy and nutritional principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Somatic cells are defined according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The definition includes:
  • The composition of somatic cells.
  • A synonym for somatic cells.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The implication of high somatic cell counts for the health of the cow is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The implication of high somatic cell counts on milk production processes is explained according to standard dairy and health principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Lactose intolerance is defined and the implication and prevention thereof are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Enzymes are defined according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The mechanism and specificity of biochemical catalysts is explained according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Factors that influence biochemical catalyst activities are explained according to standard chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Natural enzymes and bacterial enzymes are defined according to standard chemical and biological principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Enzymes in milk are defined by referring to their substrates, their end products and their significant characteristics, according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Enzymes in milk are defined as:
  • Lipase.
  • Protease.
  • Catalase.
  • Phosphatase.
  • Peroxidase.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The functional properties of milk fat in dairy products are described according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Emulsifying is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of an emulsion.
  • The role of milk fat during formation of an emulsion.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Examples of where milk proteins, fat and lactose are applied in the production of dairy products are given. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Two examples of each are given.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The importance of lactose in the production of fermented dairy products is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The effects of heat, acid and enzymes on casein and whey proteins are explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The behaviour of milk proteins and fat during dairy production is described according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Dairy production includes:
  • Heating.
  • Refrigeration.
  • Pumping.
  • Homogenisation.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Denaturation of proteins are defined and explained according to standard dairy and chemical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effect of storage on milk proteins, fat and lactose is explained according to standard dairy principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Proteolysis is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of proteolysis.
  • The effect of proteolysis on product quality.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The quality defects occurring during storage and processing of dairy products are defined according to protein and biochemical catalyst activities. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Quality defects of milk or milk products refers to:
  • Taste defects.
  • Texture defects.
  • Appearance defects.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The Maillard reaction is described in terms of a definition and the effect it has on the quality of dairy products. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Lipolysis is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of lipolysis and rancidity.
  • The effect of lipolysis on product quality.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    Homogenisation is described according to standard dairy principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The description includes:
  • A definition of homogenisation.
  • The purpose of homogenisation.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor or moderator respectively with the relevant Education and Training Quality Assurance Body (ETQA), or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA, or with another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA, or by another ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal (provider-based) and external (ETQA-based) moderation of assessment, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment against this unit standard should encompass achievement of competencies described in the individual unit standard and may encompass achievement of integrated competencies with other unit standard(s).
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is reflected within the assessment criteria of each specific outcome. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information by:
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the chemical composition, health aspects, functional properties and changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose.

    Evident in Specific Outcome
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the physical-chemical nature of milk components.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by.
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the chemical composition, health aspects, functional properties and changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose.

    Evident in Specific Outcome
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the physical-chemical nature of milk components.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large.

    Evident in Specific Outcome
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the physical-chemical nature of milk components.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical composition of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nutritional and health aspects of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the functional properties of milk proteins, fat and lactose.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in milk proteins, fat and lactose that influence the quality of dairy products. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 9181, "Demonstrate knowledge of the functional components of milk", Level 4, 7 credits.

    Supplementary Information:

    Legal requirements:

    Where applicable, the following acts, current and future regulations and amendments should be considered:
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, No. 54 of 1972.
  • Health Act, No 63 of 1977.
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993.
  • Other industry specific Acts.

    Where applicable, the following International and National Standards should be considered:
  • SANS 1049 - Food Hygiene Management.
  • SANS 10330 - Requirements for a HACCP system.
  • ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for organisations throughout the food chain.
  • ISO 9001 - Quality Management System - Requirements. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  50306   Further Education and Training Certificate: Dairy Manufacturing Technology  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2018-07-26  FOODBEV 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FMCG Training Solutions CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.