SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of air traffic management radio navigation aids 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
230210  Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of air traffic management radio navigation aids 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
The qualifying learner will be capable of demonstrating an understanding of the principles of Air Traffic Management Radio Navigation Aids.

Qualifying learners will be capable of:
  • Demonstrating the principles of Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR).
  • Demonstrating the principles of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME).
  • Demonstrating the principles of Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF).
  • Demonstrating the principles of Instrument Landing Systems (ILS).
  • Demonstrating the principles of Global Positioning Systems (GPS). 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that a learner will be competent in:
  • Communication at NQF level 4 or equivalent.
  • Mathematics at NQF level 4 or equivalent. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) principles are explained in terms of use in air navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Use in air navigation includes but is not limited to:
  • Azimuth positioning.
  • Directional information.
  • Point to point navigation.
  • Information presentation to pilots.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) principles are explained in terms of radiated signal in space. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Radiated signal in space includes, but is not limited to:
  • Reference signals.
  • Variable signals.
  • Signal modulation.
  • Phase relationships required to generate azimuth information.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) principles are explained in terms of system functionality. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    System functionality includes, but is not limited to:
  • Ground based aerial systems.
  • Transmitters.
  • Modulators.
  • Signal and data processing.
  • Monitors.
  • Remote control.
  • Airborne equipment.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) principles are explained in terms of flight calibration requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight calibration requirements include, but are not limited to: the need for calibration aircraft to regularly check and certify standard parameters of Very High Frequency Omni-range (VOR) systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) principles are explained in terms of use in air navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Distance measuring Equipment (DME) use in air navigation includes, but is not limited to:
  • Distance positioning.
  • How pilots use this information with regard to navigation.
  • Approach to landing.
  • The nature of the information presentation to pilots.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) principles are explained in terms of radiated signal in space. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Distance measuring Equipment (DME) radiated signal in space includes, but is not limited to:
  • Interrogation signals.
  • Reply signals.
  • Pulse modulation.
  • Pulse timing relationships required to generate distance information.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) principles are explained in terms of system functionality. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    System functionality includes, but is not limited to:
  • Ground based aerial systems.
  • Interrogators.
  • Receivers.
  • Signal.
  • Pulse and data processing.
  • Monitors.
  • Remote control.
  • Data presentation to pilots.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) principles are explained in terms of flight calibration requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight calibration requirements include, but are not limited to: the need for calibration aircraft to regularly check and certify standard parameters of Distance measuring Equipment (DME) systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) principles are explained in terms of use in air navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Use in air navigation includes, but is not limited to:
  • Directional information.
  • How Air Traffic Controllers use this information with regard to aircraft position.
  • Control and the nature of the information presentation to Air Traffic Controllers.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) principles are explained in terms of the signal in space. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Signal in space includes, but is not limited to:
  • Reference signal.
  • Variable signals.
  • The signal phase relationships required to generate directional information of the source signal.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) principles are explained in terms of system functionality. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    System functionality includes, but is not limited to:
  • Ground based aerial systems.
  • Aerial switching systems.
  • Receivers.
  • Signal and data processing.
  • Remote control.
  • Data presentation to Air Traffic Controllers.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) principles are explained in terms of flight calibration requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight calibration requirements include, but are not limited to: the need for calibration aircraft to regularly check and certify standard parameters of Very High Frequency Direction Finding Equipment (VDF) systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Instrument Landing System (ILS) principles are explained in terms of use in air navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Range of Instrument Landing System (ILS) used in air navigation include, but is not limited to:
  • Azimuth location guidance information.
  • Glide path decent guidance information.
  • Distance to runway threshold information.
  • Flare out information.
  • How aircraft utilize this information to carry out safe landings.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Instrument Landing System (ILS) principles are explained in terms of the signal in space. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Signals in space include, but are not limited to:
  • Localizer course and clearance signals.
  • Glide path course.
  • Clearance signals.
  • Distance/height measuring signals.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Instrument Landing System (ILS) principles are explained in terms of system functionality. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    System functionality includes, but is not limited to:
  • Ground based aerial systems.
  • Aerial switching systems.
  • Localizer.
  • Glidepath.
  • Precision distance measuring equipment.
  • Signal and data processing.
  • Remote control and monitoring.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Instrument Landing System (ILS) principles are explained in terms of flight calibration requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Flight calibration requirements include, but are not limited to: the need for calibration aircraft to regularly check and certify standard parameters of Instrument Landing System (ILS) systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Explain Global Positioning Systems (GPS) principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) principles are explained in terms of use in air navigation. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Use in air navigation includes, but is not limited to:
  • Three dimensional positional accuracy.
  • Response time.
  • Information presentation and integration with other navigation and surveillance systems.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) principles are explained in terms of position determining concepts. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Position determining concepts include, but are not limited to:
  • Orbital positioning of satellites.
  • Microwave transmission of timing information.
  • Three-dimensional triangulation calculations.
  • Position determination based on known position of satellites in relation to time.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) principles are explained in terms of system functionality. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    System functionality includes, but is not limited to:
  • Satellite Systems.
  • Ground based Augmentation Systems.
  • Mobile Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment.
     


  • UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard must be accredited by the relevant ETQA.
  • External Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA at its discretion.
  • The accredited Training Provider will oversee internal moderation of assessment.
  • Internal and external moderation should encompass achievement of competence described in the specific outcomes of the unit standard as well as the integrated competence described in the purpose of the unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • Radio wave propagation.
  • Phase Modulation.
  • Pulse modulation.
  • Aerial systems.
  • Radio Navigation.
  • National ATM Navigation System architecture. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others when liasing with Air Traffic Controllers and other role players in the ATM environment. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively ensuring that information communicated via technical reports is accurately recorded in a neat and logical format that can be readily accessed and understood by end-users and that ongoing oral communication is maintained with Air Traffic Control during the maintenance and operation of Navigational Systems. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Demonstrate scientific and technological competence by applying knowledge and understanding of scientific processes to the correct understanding of sophisticated, high technology ATM equipment and diagnostic systems. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems, by recognising that the role of the technician is a vital part of the integrated Navigation System within Air Traffic Management environment. These System are used by Air Traffic Control, Airline Pilots and the flying community at large and as such should therefore not be regarded as a role, which is performed in isolation. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • Assessors must be registered as assessors with a relevant ETQA or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessors must be in possession of a relevant qualification at a minimum of NQF level 6. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Fundamental  57229   National Certificate: Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Support  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Aviation Training Academy 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.