SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Burn carbonate material in a kiln 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
242756  Burn carbonate material in a kiln 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  36 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people who intend following a career in the mining and minerals sector, particularly in the domain of cement, lime, aggregates and sand.

Learners credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge relating to the operation and operating principles of carbonate material burning kilns.
  • Prepare to start the kiln.
  • Start the kiln.
  • Operate the kiln.
  • Shut down the kiln.

    This unit standard is intended to promote general skills, knowledge and understanding of burning carbonate material in a kiln in the mining and minerals sector in order to ensure knowledgeable and informed workers. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication and Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 3.
  • Knowledge of related plant, equipment and processes at NQF Level 3.
  • Occupational health and safety practices in a cement or lime manufacturing plant at NQF Level 3. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The following scope and context applies to the whole unit standard. Carbonate material refers to:
  • Limestone.
  • Magnesian limestone.
  • Dolomite.
  • Magnesite. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the operation and operating principles of carbonate material burning kilns. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The purpose of the kiln plant is described in terms of plant output (end product) meeting production requirements and product specifications. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Operating components and the interlock systems of the kiln plant are described in relation to their function as a part of the process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The conversion of kiln feed to burnt product is explained in terms of the chemical and combustion processes that take place in the kiln and its associated equipment. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Type of kiln (Long dry; Preheater or Vertical Shaft kilns).
  • Energy recovery systems.
  • Coolers.
  • Firing systems.
  • Environmental control systems.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The type and function of various essential instruments used to achieve optimum plant performance, are explained in terms of their relevance to the manufacturing process. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Explanation must include:
  • Temperature indicators.
  • Pressure indicators.
  • Gas analysers.
  • Feed rate indicators.
  • Torque, power and current indicators.
  • Emission monitors and indicators.
  • Alarm annunciator systems.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The thermal inter-relationships between kiln shell and refractories are explained in terms of potential damage to the kiln, mechanical components and refractories. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The faults that can occur during the operation are identified and remedial actions are described in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Knowledge of specific compliances and conditions related to regulatory authorities is demonstrated in terms of specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Specified lockout procedures, pertaining to the kiln plant and the consequences of non-compliance are explained in terms of specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Prepare to start the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    All lockouts are removed, the area made safe for operation and appropriate documentation completed, in accordance with specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Equipment needed for the process is tested, is ensured to be in good working order and ready to run. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Faults are identified and remedial action taken, all in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The correct personal protective equipment is functional and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Feed materials and fuel are checked to ensure the availability of quantity and quality in accordance with plant requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The storage facilities for processed materials are ensured to be adequate for plant requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Pre-start inspections are conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Inspections must include:
  • Doors closed.
  • Thermocouples in working order.
  • Equipment and material removed.
  • Instruments in working order.
  • Feed.
  • Fuel.
  • Build ups of material in the process.
  • Lubrication and coolants activated.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Start the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Hazards and associated risks pertaining to the start-up of the kiln, are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Personal protective equipment is selected and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The kiln is heated and started in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Heating and start-up must include:
  • Heating profile.
  • Tyre creep.
  • Feed rate.
  • Balance between fuel and air (different types of fuel).
  • Exhaust gas condition.
  • Kiln shell temperature.
  • Disposal of products not conforming to specifications.
  • Quality parameters.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The kiln is operated to reach a stable condition and produce burnt material of an acceptable quality in accordance with product and production requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Operate the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The kiln and ancillary equipment are operated such that product quality requirements are maintained and equipment performance is optimised in accordance with specified requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Operation must include:
  • Kiln.
  • Feed system.
  • Filters.
  • Fuel system.
  • Product transport systems.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Hazards and risks are identified and dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Deviations from set parameters are identified, assessed and rectified timeously in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    All communication, both written and verbal, is conducted in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Short production interruptions caused by plant or power failures are dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The manufacturing process is monitored in accordance with product requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Shut down the kiln. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Hazards and associated risks pertaining to the shutdown of the kiln are identified and preventative and/or corrective action is taken in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The kiln is shut down in accordance with specified requirements. This includes emergency shutdown procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The thermal effect and stresses are monitored and managed in accordance with site requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Lockout procedures and safety regulations are complied with and personal protective equipment is selected and used in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Doors are opened for inspection once the kiln has cooled down sufficiently, in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Material outside quality parameters is dealt with in accordance with specified requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • Knowledge relating to the process:

    > Purpose of burning raw materials in the kiln (chemical processes).
    > Cement manufacturing process (particularly with respect to burning).
    > Relevant terminology and names of systems and major components.
    > Instrumentation - what they measure and what it means.
    > Possible non-conformances, their consequences and mitigating actions.
  • Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental issues:

    > Significant hazards and risks related to burning, their consequences and mitigating actions.
    > Safety measures related to plant and process.
    > PPE requirements and the reason for each.
    > Impact on the environment and mitigating actions.
    > Emergency procedures.
  • Applicable statutory requirements:

    > Relevant clauses from applicable acts and regulations.
    > Codes of practice.
    > Burner competency requirements and restrictions.
  • Communication:

    > Reporting requirements and ability.
    > Communicating with relevant personnel.
    > Liaison with associated operations and personnel. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • The ability and willingness of the learner to interact with various other workers e.g. in the plant, laboratory and engineering department in order to ensure consistent adherence to production and quality requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • The ability of the learner to record, monitor and analyse the information from the process control system in order to ensure consistent adherence to production and quality requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • The ability of the learner to integrate sophisticated process and plant technology in order to consistently produce product of the required quality in accordance with environmental, occupational health and safety requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • The ability of the learner to understand the relationship between upstream, downstream and associated processes, and the impact that he may have in each regard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:
  • Specified requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site-specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Legal:

    > Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act 50/1991).
    > Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85/1993).
    > Mandatory Codes of Practice.
    > SANS and other relevant Standards.
    > Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives/Instructions.
    > Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.
  • Site-specific:

    > Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
    > Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
    > Managerial Instructions.
    > Mine Standard Procedures.
    > List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
    > Working Guides.
    > Equipment and Materials Specifications. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  57692   Further Education and Training Certificate: Carbonate Materials Manufacturing Processes  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. PPC LTD SANDTON OFFICE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.