SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Apply safety principles for flight operations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
243325  Apply safety principles for flight operations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will enable learners to demonstrate knowledge of safety principles in aviation in compliance with Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) or Military Aviation Authority (MAA) Regulations and safe flying practice. This unit standard will benefit learners within the arena of commercial piloting. This unit standard contributes to bringing to society a safe and professional air transportation system that further contributes to the sustainability of the national economy and international trade and communication.

A person credited with this unit standard is able to:
  • Manage hazardous conditions.
  • Determine the impact of unsafe practices on flight operations.
  • Review the safety of flight operations. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication NQF Level 4. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • Assessment of the learner shall be conducted in compliance with CAA/MAA Regulations and in accordance with safe flying practice.
  • The aircraft and its systems shall be operated within the limitations expressed in the Aircraft flight Manual (AFM) or Pilot Operating Handbook (POH).
  • CRM is integral to flight and flight safety. Procedural elements of CRM are to be assessed throughout the assessment of all outcomes in a holistic and integrated way.
  • Range of procedural elements include but are not limited to: Use of checklists, crew briefings, radio calls, and callouts.
  • Assessment of the application of the safety principles in physical flying conditions:
    > Competence shall be assessed in a single or multi-engine aeroplane with retractable undercarriage and adjustable flaps, and variable pitch propeller, or turbo-propeller or turbo-jet engines, or in a helicopter with a maximum certificated mass of at least 500 kg.
    > If a multi-engine aircraft is provided for assessment, the learner shall be assessed on competence in carrying out appropriate manoeuvres with one engine (simulated) inoperative.
    > If a single engine aircraft is provided for assessment of the learner then the aircraft shall be certified for single pilot operation.
    > An equivalent flight simulator approved by the regulatory authority may be substituted for the aircraft.
    > Assessments shall be conducted in an aircraft certified for single pilot operation.
    > Assessment may be carried out under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) or Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) or simulated meteorological conditions.
  • Emergencies (simulated): Under no circumstances shall the aircraft or its occupants be placed in jeopardy.
  • Good airmanship appropriate to the level of the unit standard should be demonstrated for all outcomes. Additional elements of airmanship specific to outcomes are indicated in range statements within assessment criteria. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Manage hazardous conditions. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • The term hazardous refers to anything that has the potential to cause harm.
  • Conditions refer to but is not limited to environmental, organisational and personal conditions. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Safety principles are analysed in order to determine their application to flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of aviation safety principles are analysed in terms of its impact on flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Deviations from the normal flight operations are identified during phases of flight. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Phases include but are not limited to preparation, pre-flight, taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, decent, approach, landing, go-around, post-flight.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Deviations from the normal flight operations are analysed in order to inform corrective action. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Corrective action is performed to address the hazardous condition. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Associated risks are identified and assessed in order to determine the level of risk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    A plan of action is developed in order to mitigate identified risks. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    The effectiveness of the plan of action is reviewed in order to adjust plans where necessary. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Determine the impact of unsafe practices on flight operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Unsafe practices refer to but are not limited to carriage of dangerous goods, violations of regulations and unauthorised operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Flight operations are assessed to identify unsafe practices. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Unsafe practises are analysed in terms of their impact on safe flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Associated risks are identified and assessed in order to determine the level of risk. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    A plan of action is developed in order to mitigate identified risks. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The effectiveness of the plan of action is reviewed in order to adjust plans where necessary. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Review the safety of flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Accident and incident reports are analysed for future use in a risk reduction plan. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Reasons why incident reports should be voluntarily disclosed are explained in the interest of aviation safety. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    A risk reduction plan is developed for implementation in flight operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The effectiveness of the plan of action is reviewed in order to adjust plans where necessary. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA in accordance with the current ETQA regulations.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA.
  • Other ETQA's who have a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA would be responsible for moderation of learner achievements of learners who meet the requirements of this qualification. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
  • The definition of airmanship
  • Definition of situational awareness
  • AFM/POH procedures for operating the aircraft
  • AFM/POH procedures for non-normal and emergency situations that might occur
  • Air traffic control procedures
  • Procedures specific to the airport being used
  • Aircraft systems and operating limitations
  • Regulatory requirements and restrictions for piloting an aircraft
  • Legal and operational requirements for flying for single and multi-engine aircraft
  • Sources for obtaining flight planning information
  • Techniques for determining aircraft mass and balance
  • Techniques for compiling a flight plan
  • Operational documentation requirements and procedures
  • Pre- and post-flight inspection procedures
  • Safety procedures: fuelling the aircraft, positioning the aircraft for start-up and taxing
  • Procedures for securing equipment, passengers and loads
  • RTF communication procedures

    Purpose of processes and procedures of:
  • Aviation operations
  • Aviation operations in fulfilling mandates whilst providing a service to stakeholders
  • National aviation law enforcement concepts
  • Causality of events
  • The processes in providing operational planning
  • Restrictions and limitations
  • The need for a regulatory framework to ensure safety
  • Civil Aviation Act as amended
  • Civil Aviation Regulations and Technical Standards
  • Military Aviation Regulations
  • ICAO
  • Aviation terminology and concepts 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identifying and solving problems in which responses display that responsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have been made when:
  • Planning and performing flights to achieve objectives within the constraints of the aircraft limitations and regulatory requirements. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation, and community during:
  • Acting as pilot-in-command of a flight crew.
  • Communicating with Air Traffic Service (ATS) and organising the flight in cognisance of other air traffic.
  • Establishing and maintaining an open communication environment conducive to good team work. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organising and managing oneself and one's activities responsibly and effectively when:
  • Plan ahead.
  • Compliance with applicable legislation.
  • Performing appropriate checks and procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information to better understand and explain:
  • Identifying symptoms of instrument, system and engine malfunctions.
  • Identifying changes to the conditions and the prevailing weather.
  • Identifying changes to the traffic flow which may require adaptation of the flight path. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others when:
  • Taking prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded.
  • Flying the aircraft in such a way that tolerance exceedences are kept to a minimum. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation when:
  • A high level of situational awareness is maintained.
  • Airspace restrictions and requirements are adhered to.
  • Curfews, noise abatement procedures and other measures to minimise disturbance to the environment and the public are observed.
  • Safe flying practice is maintained. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
  • The assessor must hold a recognised relevant civil or military flying instructor certification as applicable to the stream of assessment.
  • The assessor must be competent in the outcomes of this unit standard. 

  • REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:
  • MAA: Military Aviation Authority
  • CAA: Civil Aviation Authority
  • CRM: Cockpit Resource Management
  • AFM: Aircraft Flight Manual
  • POH: Pilots Operating Handbook
  • AFIS: Aerodrome flight information service
  • VMC: Visual Meteorological Conditions
  • ATS: Air Traffic Services
  • VFR: Visual Flight Rules
  • IMC: Instrument meteorological conditions
  • IFR: Instrument Flight Rules
  • IAS: Indicated Air Speed

    Definitions:
  • Airmanship is defined as incorporating the ability to make sound judgements and execution of safe practices.
  • Situational awareness: The perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  • Learners who are not competent in the language proficiency standard for ICAO defined operational English at ICAO level 4 will find it difficult to meet licensing requirements. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  60549   National Diploma: Aeronautical Information Management Practice  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Core  58023   National Diploma: Aircraft Piloting  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  58580   National Certificate: Aerodrome Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 
    Fundamental  59256   National Diploma: Flight Dispatch  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.