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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Perform Air Traffic Service (ATS) shift procedures and administration 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
244194  Perform Air Traffic Service (ATS) shift procedures and administration 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Aerospace Operations 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 10 - Physical, Mathematical, Computer and Life Sciences Physical Sciences 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  15 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
A learner credited with this unit standard will be able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the air traffic control workplace and its resources.
  • Evaluate and confirm self-readiness to perform air traffic control duties.
  • Demonstrate air traffic control shift-specific practices. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Communication at NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • Mathematics NQF Level 4 or equivalent.
  • "Interpret and communicate aeronautical information to in support of air traffic management", NQF Level 5.
  • "Explain aviation legislation related to air traffic services", NQF Level 5.
  • "Demonstrate team resource management within a specific work environment", NQF Level 5. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
  • ATS shift procedures include but are not limited to opening, closing and hand-over of watch.
  • Air traffic service refers to approach procedural control (non-radar) OR area procedural control (non-radar).
    Note: This range should be applied in the context of Air Traffic Control.

    The learning path must be contextualised in either area or approach procedural control. Once the specific learning path has been completed, a learner who wishes to move to the other learning path must be assessed for the ability to contextualise the competence in the chosen learning path. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the air traffic control workplace and its resources. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    The assessment shall be in respect of the resources provided for the assessment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The air traffic control workplace and its resources are critically analysed in order to determine operating limitations. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Resources include but are not limited to navigation systems, communication systems, surveillance systems.
  • Critically refers to but is not limited to the integrated analysis of the air traffic control workplace.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Influence of air traffic control resource failures and/or inadequacies on service delivery is evaluated in terms of its consequences. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Consequences include but are not limited to scope of service, aviation safety, operational readiness.
  • Air traffic control resource failures include but are not limited to human resources, radar systems, communication systems.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Influence of operational failures on service delivery is evaluated in terms of its consequences. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Consequences include but are not limited to impact upon service delivery, diversion of aircraft.
  • Operational failures include but are not limited to navigational systems, aircraft systems.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Evaluate and confirm self-readiness to perform air traffic control duties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Self-readiness to perform air traffic control duties is confirmed through compliance with regulatory requirements. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Requirements include but are not limited to:
  • Licence, medical status, recency of experience and currency of competence.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Human factors are identified and evaluated to determine their impact on personal readiness for control duties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Factors include but are not limited to:
  • Fatigue, alcohol, narcotics and medication, scuba diving and personal stress, psychological well-being.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Organisational procedures are adhered to in the event of not being ready for air traffic control duties. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate air traffic control shift-specific practices. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Shift-specific practices include but are not limited to opening, closing and hand-over of watch.
  • The assessment shall be in respect of the resources provided for the assessm. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Organisational opening of watch procedures are demonstrated in support of air traffic control duty responsibilities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Organisational closing of watch procedures are demonstrated in support of air traffic control duty responsibilities. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Organisational hand-over of watch procedures are demonstrated in support of air traffic control duty responsibilities. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An individual wishing to be assessed (including through RPL) against this Unit Standard may apply to an assessment agency, assessor or provider institution accredited by the relevant ETQA, or an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Anyone assessing a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this Unit Standard or assessing this Unit Standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant ETQA or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be conducted by the relevant ETQA at its discretion. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Approach Control - Procedural:
  • Provision of Approach control service.
  • Responsibilities of approach control (TMA, CTR).
  • Co-ordination with other units.
  • Expected approach time.
  • Onward clearance time.
  • Transfer of control and communications.
  • Transfer of control and communication to the Area control unit.
  • Co-ordination between Approach control and Aerodrome control.
  • Procedures for departing aircraft.
  • Turbo prop and turbo jet aircraft operations.
  • Outbound clearances.
  • Loss of communication procedures.
  • SIDs.
  • Procedures for arriving aircraft.
  • Information to arriving aircraft.
  • Approach sequence.
  • STARs.
  • Types of approaches.
  • Suspension and Resumption of VFR operations.
  • RNAV Operations.
  • RNAV Routes.
  • RNAV Approaches.
  • SAR procedures associated with Approach control.
  • Direction finding.
  • General application of RVSM related to Approach Procedural Control.
  • Handling of Emergencies.
  • Introduction and Application of separation standards.
  • Provision of standard separation.
  • Increased separation.
  • Reduced separation.
  • Loss of separation.
  • Essential traffic information.
  • Types of separation.
  • Vertical separation application.
  • Vertical separation minima.
  • Minimum cruising level.
  • Changing levels.
  • Assignment of cruising level.
  • Types of horizontal separation.
  • Lateral separation based on VOR/DME.
  • Track separation.
  • Track separation for use on departure or en-route.
  • Aircraft inbound and aircraft outbound.
  • Track separation between converging aircraft.
  • Separation from a holding pattern.
  • Longitudinal Separation Based On Time.
  • Time separation, same track, same level.
  • Formula for faster aircraft climbing or descending behind.
  • En-route same track, same cruising level.
  • Reciprocal tracks.
  • Crossing tracks.
  • Holding aircraft.
  • Longitudinal Separation Based On Distance (DME/RNAV).
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance (DME).
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance (RNAV).
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance for same track.
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance for reciprocal tracks.
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance for crossing tracks.
  • Arrival/Departure Separation.
  • Sector Separation.
  • Use of flight progress strips.
  • Abbreviations and symbols relevant to Approach control.
  • Progress board layout.
  • Scanning of flight progress strips.
  • Radio guard.
  • Speech technique.
  • RT callsigns for ATC units.
  • Aircraft callsigns.
  • The importance of RT discipline.
  • Communication with aircraft.
  • Callsign confusion.
  • Establishment of contact.
  • Continuation of communications.
  • Acknowledge and readback of transmissions.
  • Transfer of communications.
  • Transmission of company messages.
  • Emergency communication.
  • Distress communication.
  • Imposition of silence.
  • Actions by other stations.
  • Radio telephony procedures relevant to Approach control.

    Area Control - Procedural:
  • Area control service provided.
  • Extent of responsibility.
  • Calculating estimates.
  • Transfer of communications.
  • Loss of communications at transfer points.
  • Transfer of control.
  • Co-ordination in respect of the provision of air traffic control service, flight information service and alerting service.
  • Co-ordination between unit providing Area control and Approach control service.
  • Division of control.
  • Exchange of movement and control data between Approach control and Area control.
  • Exchange of movement and control data between Area control and Approach control.
  • Co-ordination between Control Positions within the same Unit.
  • Co-ordination between ATSU and Aeronautical Telecommunications Stations.
  • Co-ordination Between Area Control and Approach.
  • Outbound Clearances.
  • Inbound Clearances.
  • Information to be given to Approach.
  • Release and Transfer of Control and Communications.
  • Transfer of Communications to Approach.
  • Loss of Communications.
  • Release to Approach.
  • Procedures for Arriving or Departing Aircraft.
  • Release or Transfer Points.
  • Transfer of Control.
  • Loss of Communications.
  • Procedures for Overflying Flights, Flying through Remote TMAs and CTRs (IFR and VFR).
  • Information to be given to Aircraft on First Contact.
  • Air Traffic Advisory Service.
  • Objectives of Advisory Service.
  • Principles of Advisory Service.
  • Pilots' Responsibilities i.r.o. Advisory Service.
  • Phraseologies for use In Advisory Service.
  • Aircraft Requests Clearance to Climb.
  • Aircraft Requests Clearance to Descend.
  • Reports Leaving/ Reaching/ Passing.
  • Liaison Area Control with approach control.
  • Handling emergencies.
  • Provision of standard separation.
  • Increased separation.
  • Reduced separation.
  • Loss of separation.
  • Essential traffic information.
  • Types of Separation.
  • Flexible use of airspace.
  • Central airspace management unit.
  • Pre-tactical planning of traffic.
  • Vertical Separation.
  • Vertical separation application.
  • Vertical separation minima.
  • Minimum cruising level.
  • Changing levels.
  • Assignment of cruising level.
  • Vertical Speed Control Instructions.
  • Horizontal Separation.
  • Lateral Separation.
  • Lateral separation for use on departure or en-route: both aircraft outbound.
  • Lateral separation for use between: aircraft inbound and aircraft outbound.
  • Lateral separation between: both aircraft inbound.
  • Using RNAV operations.
  • Longitudinal Separation.
  • Track definition.
  • Longitudinal separation based on time.
  • Longitudinal separation based on distance.
  • The Mystery of Mach Number Technique.
  • Longitudinal Separation minima with mach number technique based on distance using RNAV.
  • Longitudinal Separation minima with mach number technique based on distance using RNAV where RNP is specified.
  • Horizontal Speed Control Instructions.
  • Holding Aircraft.
  • Arrival/Departure Separation.
  • Sector Separation between Arriving and Departing Aircraft.
  • Use of flight progress strips.
  • Progress board layout.
  • Scanning of flight progress strips.
  • Radio guard.
  • Speech technique.
  • RT callsigns for ATC units.
  • Aircraft callsigns.
  • The importance of RT discipline.
  • Callsign confusion.
  • Establishment of contact.
  • Continuation of communications.
  • Acknowledge and readback of transmissions.
  • Transfer of communications.
  • Transmission of company messages.
  • Emergency communication.
  • Distress communication.
  • Action by ground station addressed.
  • Imposition of silence.
  • Actions by other stations.
  • Radio telephony procedures relevant to Area control.
  • OCT.
  • EAT.
  • Holding and approach sequence.
  • Approaches maintaining VMC.
  • Visual approaches.
  • Oceanic operations.
  • CPDLC Procedures.
  • Means of Communication.
  • Notification of frequencies to the preceding ATSU.
  • Notification of HF frequencies by CPDLC.
  • CPDLC Capability.
  • Notification of CPDLC capability.
  • Downlink messages.
  • Uplink messages.
  • Use of Pre-Formatted and Free Text Messages.
  • Preferred use of pre-formatted messages.
  • Standardised free text messages.
  • Storing free text messages.
  • Exchange of CPDLC messages.
  • Message assurance.
  • Ambiguous dialogues.
  • Interruption of a CPDLC dialogue.
  • Approval of request or clearance/instruction.
  • Affirmative response to a clearance/instruction.
  • Affirmative response to a clearance request.
  • Conditions relating to a specific clearance.
  • Affirmative response to a negotiation request.
  • Negative response to a downlink request.
  • Negative response to a clearance request.
  • Re-statement of a clearance.
  • Explanation of negative response.
  • Negative response to an uplink request.
  • Time period between receiving and responding to a message.
  • Delays in responding.
  • Delay expected after receiving a "STANDBY" message.
  • Re-sending Messages.
  • Duplicate requests received.
  • Altitude change clearances.
  • Issuing conditional altitude change clearances.
  • Appending report reaching to climb or descent clearances.
  • Cancelling block altitude clearances.
  • Requesting an aircraft's speed.
  • Advising a wake turbulence offset.
  • Multi-Element Requests.
  • Avoiding multiple element clearance requests.
  • Responding to multiple element clearance requests.
  • Message Closure.
  • Answering an uplink free text.
  • Dialogue commenced via CPDLC and continued via voice.
  • Position Reporting.
  • Downlink of position report.
  • Flexible track position reports.
  • First position report.
  • Sending of ATC waypoints only.
  • Updating a waypoint estimate.
  • Non-receipt of a scheduled position report.
  • Sequencing 'ABEAM' waypoints in excess of FMC parameters.
  • ARINC 424 fix names.
  • ADS Procedures.
  • ADS Description.
  • ADS contracts and modes.
  • Factors To Be Considered When Using ADS.
  • Vertical and lateral variations.
  • Figure of Merit (FOM) data in ADS reports.
  • Flight crew modification of active route.
  • ADS Connection Management.
  • Priority for the ADS connection.
  • Allocation of ADS connections.
  • Near boundary ADS connections.
  • Monitoring of an aircraft operating close to an airspace boundary.
  • Other ground facilities requesting ADS contracts.
  • ADS connections not available.
  • Ground system termination of ADS connections.
  • Reporting Rates.
  • Appropriate reporting rates.
  • Avoid high periodic reporting rates.
  • Other factors to be considered.
  • Default periodic reporting rates.
  • Appropriate ADS reporting requirements.
  • Appropriate separation standard.
  • Vertical tolerance consistency.
  • Application of vertical tolerances.
  • ADS level information does not satisfy vertical tolerance.
  • Use of ADS level information.
  • Limitations on the use of tools (ADS).
  • Using extrapolated or interpolated positions.
  • Validity of displayed information.
  • Areas of lateral conflict.
  • Air Traffic Clearance Monitoring.
  • Deviations from ATC clearances.
  • Co-ordinated data inconsistent with ADS displayed data.
  • Alerting service.
  • Late or missing ADS Reports.
  • Aircraft in heading select mode.
  • Sequencing subsequent waypoints.
  • Position reporting requirements in ADS airspace.
  • Publishing reporting requirements.
  • CPDLC report at FIR entry position.
  • Updating waypoint estimates.
  • Non-compulsory waypoints.
  • Discrepancies between ADS and CPDLC estimates.
  • Actions to be followed when there is an estimate discrepancy.
  • Historical Background of RVSM.
  • The Origins of 2000 feet above FL 290.
  • Determination of the Vertical Separation Panel in June 1954.
  • Development of RVSM in the NAT Region and Europe.
  • ICAO feasibility study during the 1970's for RVSM above FL290.
  • NAT Region MNPS.
  • European implementation of RVSM.
  • Safety implications.
  • Traffic complexity.
  • Categories of aircraft types.
  • RVSM in AFI Region.
  • Extension of RVSM in AFI Region.
  • The need for RVSM in AFI Region.
  • APIRG endorsement.
  • Aspects that need to be considered for RVSM implementation in the AFI Region.
  • Operational advantage of RVSM.
  • The RVSM programme organisation in the AFI Region.
  • AFI RVSM Programme.
  • Programme management.
  • Aircraft operations and airworthiness.
  • ATM.
  • RVSM safety assurance.
  • RMA.
  • National RVSM Programme.
  • RVSM Aircraft Requirements and Approval.
  • RVSM Approval Process.
  • MASPS.
  • MEL.
  • Operator responsibilities.
  • Operating procedures.
  • RVSM status on AOC.
  • State Approval.
  • Responsibility of the state of the operator/registry.
  • Validity of approval.
  • Safety and Monitoring.
  • Collision Risk Model (CRM).
  • Height keeping performance.
  • Airspace parameter characterising.
  • The need for monitoring.
  • TLS.
  • Efficacy of RVSM MASPS.
  • Height Monitoring.
  • Total vertical error (TVE).
  • Assigned altitude deviation (AAD).
  • Altimetry system error (ASE).
  • The AAD/ASE relationship.
  • Height Monitoring Systems.
  • HMU.
  • GMU.
  • Flight Planning.
  • RVSM specific inclusions for FPLs.
  • Repetitive flight plans (RPL).
  • RVSM specific inclusions for RPLs.
  • Definition of OAT.
  • Definition of GAT.
  • ACAS Version 6.04a and Version 7.
  • Flight level allocation system (FLAS).
  • Annotation of aircraft RVSM status (FDP/RDP).
  • Minimum vertical separation between RVSM aircraft.
  • Minimum vertical separation between non-RVSM aircraft and any other.
  • Vertical separation minimum for transition task.
  • Formation flights by civil aircraft and State aircraft.
  • Flight level allocation to non-RVSM approved aircraft other than State aircraft.
  • Inter-Centre Co-ordination.
  • Computer assisted co-ordination of estimate messages.
  • Verbal co-ordination of estimate messages.
  • Vertical Spacing from Prohibited, Restricted, Danger and Temporary Segregated Areas.
  • Delineation of airspace restrictions.
  • Vertical spacing requirements.
  • Transition Procedures.
  • Traffic entering RVSM airspace.
  • RVSM Vertical separation minimum.
  • Flight level allocation.
  • Traffic exiting RVSM airspace.
  • Aircraft landing within the lateral limits of RVSM airspace.
  • Aircraft landing outside and transiting the lateral limits of RVSM airspace.
  • Contingency Procedures.
  • Equipment related procedures.
  • Weather related procedures.
  • Loss of separation procedures.
  • Communications Failure in transition airspace.
  • ICAO Communication Failure Procedure.
  • Communications Failure in Non-Transition RVSM Airspace.
  • ICAO Communication Failure Procedure.
  • RVSM approval status.
  • Pilot indication of non-RVSM approval status.
  • Denial of clearance into RVSM airspace.
  • Non-compliance with RVSM due to turbulence.
  • Non-compliance with RVSM due to equipment failure.
  • Pilot indication of ability to resume RVSM operations.
  • Controller request for pilot ability to resume RVSM operations.
  • Supplementary information to automated message exchange without Item 18.
  • Supplementary information on non-RVSM approved aircraft.
  • Supplementary information on contingency aircraft. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
  • Identify alternative methods for communicating/transmitting information when communication equipment failure is experienced.
  • Monitor the status of air traffic services facilities, identify and report facilities which have become unserviceable. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
  • All information is verified and confirmed prior to distribution. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
  • Maintain communication with Air Traffic Controllers and provide required information relevant to developing situations.
  • All equipment breakdown/failure is immediately reported to appropriate personnel to ensure the smooth and uninterrupted flow of information.
  • Prioritise and communicate information by order of importance. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
  • Computer systems are used correctly to process accurate flight data. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
  • Recognise the importance of providing efficient and effective support in an air traffic service environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Abbreviations:
  • SSR: Secondary Surveillance Radar.
  • SAR: Search and Rescue.
  • ATS: Air Traffic Service.
  • VMC: Visual MET conditions.
  • ATSU: Air traffic service unit.
  • RVSM: Reduced vertical separation minima.
  • IMC: instrument MET conditions.
  • RNAV: Area navigation.
  • GNSS: Global navigation satellite system.
  • TMA: Terminal Control Area.
  • CTR: Control Zone.
  • SID: Standard Instrument Departure.
  • STAR: Standard Instrument Arrival.
  • VFR: Visual Flight Rules.
  • VOR: VHF Omni-Range.
  • DME: Distance measuring equipment.
  • RT: Radiotelephony.
  • ATC: Air traffic control.
  • IFR: Instrument Flight Rules.
  • RNP: Required navigation performance.
  • OCT: Onward clearance time.
  • EAT: Expected approach time.
  • IMC: instrument MET conditions.
  • VMC: Visual MET conditions.
  • CPDLC: Controller-pilot data link communications.
  • FMC: Flight Management Computer.
  • ARINC: Aeronautical radio incorporated.
  • ADS: Automatic dependent surveillance.
  • FOM: Figure of Merit.
  • FIR: Flight Information Region.
  • NAT: North Atlantic region.
  • MNPS: Minimum navigation performance specifications.
  • AFI: African-Indian Ocean region.
  • RMA: Regional monitoring agency.
  • MASPS: Minimum aviation system performance standards.
  • MEL: Minimum equipment list.
  • AOC: Aircraft operating certificate.
  • ATM: Air traffic management.
  • CRM: Collision Risk Model.
  • TLS: Transponder landing system.
  • TVE: Total vertical error.
  • AAD: Assigned altitude deviation.
  • ASE: Altimetry system error.
  • HMU: Height monitoring unit.
  • GMU: GPS monitoring unit.
  • FPL: Flight plan.
  • RPL: Repetitive flight plans.
  • OAT: Operational air traffic.
  • GAT: General air traffic.
  • ACAS: Airborne collision avoidance system.
  • FLAS: Flight level allocation system.
  • FDP: Primary flight display.
  • RDP: Radar data processor.
  • ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  58580   National Certificate: Aerodrome Control  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2016-12-31  TETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.