SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Respond to physical and psychological emergency situations 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
252088  Respond to physical and psychological emergency situations 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Nursing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 09 - Health Sciences and Social Services Preventive Health 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful for people working as clinically focused, service orientated, independent, registered staff nurses, who are able to render basic care to persons with stable and uncomplicated general health problems, as determined by the appropriate legislative framework.

This unit standard will recognise the essential knowledge and skills required to identify a range of physical and psychological emergency situations, and make decisions about appropriate responses.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate knowledge of physical and psychological emergency situations.
  • Demonstrate understanding of emergency responses.
  • Respond effectively to physical emergency situations.
  • Respond effectively to psychological emergency situations. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credit calculation is based on the assumption that learners are already competent in terms of the following outcomes or areas of learning when starting to learn towards this unit standard:

    > SN-01- Use basic communication skills to establish and maintain a therapeutic relationship. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Specific range statements are provided in the body of the unit standard where they apply to particular specific outcomes or assessment criteria.

    The following scope and context applies to the whole unit standard:
  • The Nurse functions within the scope of practice of a staff nurse as formulated by the SANC and the Nursing Act. 

  • Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate knowledge of physical and psychological emergency situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The definition provided of an emergency situation is consistent with generally accepted medical practice, and identifies those features which distinguish emergencies from general illnesses or ailments. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Different types of emergencies are identified in terms of their causes or origins and the possible life-threatening or life-changing consequences for the subject. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Emergencies include:
  • Cardiac arrest; abuse, violence, rape; overdose; accidents; poisoning; suicides; burns; drowning.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Examples provided of physiological and psychological emergencies are consistent with descriptions in the literature. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Literature includes:
  • Guidelines; publications; protocols; 1st aid manuals; psychiatric nursing handbooks.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Examples provided of typical responses to emergencies are appropriate for the particular emergency and consistent with health authority protocols and guidelines. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate understanding of emergency responses. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The importance of communication and interaction with healthcare users is explained with reference to their need for physical and emotional support, and the need to empower them to participate in their treatment and care. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The importance of first aid as an initial response is explained in terms of the life threatening nature of the situation and the chain of survival. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Support counselling is differentiated from other forms of counselling in terms of its limitations, support provided, and patient needs. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The importance of establishing the level of the emergency is explained with reference to decisions on handling the emergency, limitations of own contribution, and the need for specialised assistance and/or referral. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Triage is described and explained with reference to purpose, steps, sequence and scope, as prescribed in current guidelines. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Appropriate ways of responding to emergencies are described with reference to generally accepted procedures and protocols for their management. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The importance of additional support and/or referral is explained with reference to limitations of own contribution and the possible levels of the emergency. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Respond effectively to physical emergency situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Actions in response to cardio-pulmonary emergencies, alone or with assistance, are appropriate to the particular emergency, and consistent with accepted resuscitation procedures and protocols. Actions meet the requirements of both adults, children and newborns. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Actions include:
  • Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation; manual-bag artificial respiration; automatic external defibrillation; measures to dislodge mechanical airway obstruction.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Infusions are set up as required to assist with the maintenance of circulation for adult patients, in accordance with accepted procedures and protocols. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Equipment is used in accordance with its purpose and design, and manufacturer's specifications. Maintenance actions ensure that the equipment is ready and fit for purpose at all times. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Equipment includes:
  • Emergency trolleys; automatic external defibrillator; manually assisted artificial respiration device.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Intervention in the event of a physical crisis is an appropriate response to the assessed condition, and consistent with generally accepted procedures and protocols. Interventions utilise available resources to deal effectively with emergencies under different practice conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include:
  • Medical and/or trauma - in hospitals, clinics, community contexts.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Patient populations outside of own scope of competence are identified and referred where possible to expert care and support. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Populations include:
  • Rape victims, obese and pregnant patients.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Respond effectively to psychological emergency situations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Actions in response to manifestations of psychological emergency situations are appropriate to the particular emergency, and consistent with accepted procedures and protocols. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Manifestations include:
  • Hysteria, total silence, withdrawal, anxiety, confusion/disorientation.

    Actions include:
  • Empathy; caring; crisis support.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Symptoms of post traumatic stress responses are identified on presentation and referred to expert support. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Screening tools are used correctly, and in accordance with their purpose, to determine the risk associated with each emergency. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Psychological support provided is an appropriate response to the assessment conducted, and consistent with generally accepted procedures and protocols. Interventions utilise available resources to deal effectively with emergencies under different practice conditions. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Conditions include:
  • Medical and/or trauma - in hospitals, clinics, community contexts.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Referrals for instances outside of own scope of competence and authority are to appropriate health professionals. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    Accreditation Options:
  • Providers of learning towards this unit standard will need to meet the accreditation requirements of the relevant ETQA.

    Moderation Option:
  • The moderation requirements of the relevant ETQA must be met in order to award credit to learners for this unit standard. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following essential embedded knowledge will be assessed through assessment of the specific outcomes in terms of the stipulated assessment criteria. Candidates are unlikely to achieve all the specific outcomes, to the standards described in the assessment criteria, without knowledge of the listed embedded knowledge. This means that for the most part, the possession or lack of the knowledge can be directly inferred from the quality of the candidate's performance. Where direct assessment of knowledge is required, assessment criteria have been included in the body of the unit standard.
  • Understanding monitoring mechanisms (physical and psychological) as a stage in the nursing process.
  • Understanding of health status parameters e.g. ranges for vital signs.
  • Applications of corrective care mechanisms. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.

    Note: Decision making is critical in emergency response. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.

    Note: Health care provision is usually team based. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.

    Note: Organization is essential in emergency response. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.

    Note: Core to coping with emergencies. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.

    Note: Important in establishing the nature of the emergency and dealing with it. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.

    Note: Equipment and medication are used in emergency response. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Note: The body as a system; and cause and effect in emergency. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Notes to Assessors:

    Assessors should keep the following general principles in mind when designing and conducting assessments against this unit standard:
  • Focus the assessment activities on gathering evidence in terms of the main outcome expressed in the title to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Remember we want to declare the person competent in terms of the title. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then focus assessment around each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes.
  • Make sure that evidence is gathered across the entire range, wherever it applies. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to show the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • Do not focus the assessment activities on each assessment criterion. Rather make sure the assessment activities focus on outcomes and are sufficient to enable evidence to be gathered around all the assessment criteria.
  • The assessment criteria provide the specifications against which assessment judgements should be made. In most cases, knowledge can be inferred from the quality of the performances, but in other cases, knowledge and understanding will have to be tested through questioning techniques. Where this is required, there will be assessment criteria to specify the standard required.
  • The task of the assessor is to gather sufficient evidence, of the prescribed type and quality, as specified in this unit standard, that the candidate can achieve the outcomes again and again and again. This means assessors will have to judge how many repeat performances are required before they believe the performance is reproducible.
  • All assessments should be conducted in line with the following well documented principles of assessment: appropriateness, fairness, manageability, integration into work or learning, validity, direct, authentic, sufficient, systematic, open and consistent.

    The following particular issues should be taken into consideration when assessing against this unit standard:
  • Formative: The SANC guidelines are used as a reference for clinical competence. A variety of assessment strategies and/or approaches integrating theory and practice must be used. These could be tests, assignments, projects, demonstrations, and/or clinical assessments or any other applicable assessment.
  • Summative: This can take a form of oral, written or practical assessments as agreed to with the relevant ETQA.

    Definition of Terms:

    Terms have been clarified as far as possible through the use of range statements. Further clarification of terms is provided as follows:
  • Triage: The process of quickly assessing patients in a multiple casualty incident and assigning each a priority for receiving treatment according to the severity of their illness or injuries.
  • The terms "patient" and "health care user" are used interchangeably in this unit standard. The term patient is used internationally, and the term health care user is used in the Nursing Act 33 of 2005, as well as the National Health Act 61 of 2003. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  59236   National Diploma: Nursing  Level 5  NQF Level 05  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2020-07-30  As per Learning Programmes recorded against this Qual 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.