SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper manufacturing processes 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
256236  Demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper manufacturing processes 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Pulp and Paper 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Engineering and Related Design 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 2  NQF Level 02  10 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard replaces: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status
246621  Demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper manufacturing processes  Level 2  NQF Level 02  10   
110051  Demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper making manufacturing processes  Level 2  NQF Level 02  10   

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
Learners who demonstrate competence as described in the outcomes of this unit standard will be able to demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper manufacturing processes.

The qualifying learner is able to:
  • Explain the basic properties and uses of raw materials.
  • Explain raw material handling and storage operations.
  • Explain mechanical pulping operations.
  • Explain chemical pulping operations.
  • Explain stock preparation operations.
  • Explain wet and dry end operations.
  • Explain finishing operations. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Learners accessing this unit standard will have demonstrated competence against communication and mathematical literacy at NQF Level 1 or equivalent. 

    UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The typical context of this unit standard includes any manufacturing or processing environment.

    Range statements, which are applicable to the unit standard titles, specific outcomes and assessment criteria are found beneath the applicable assessment criteria. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Explain the basic properties and uses of raw materials. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Properties and uses of the raw materials in pulp and paper manufacturing are explained in terms of key characteristics. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Wood (hard and softwood), vegetable (bagasse), textile (rags and cotton waste), animal products (wool, silk and leather), waste paper.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The physical properties of wood are explained by defining the differences between hardwoods and softwoods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Moisture, density and length of fibres.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The physical properties of pulps are explained by defining the differences between hardwood and softwood pulps. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Strength, bulk, fibre length.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The physical properties of bagasse are explained in terms of key characteristics. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Rind, pith and fibre.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Explain raw material handling and storage operations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Raw materials include wood, bagasse, recycled waste paper. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Woodyard operations are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Woodyard operations include wood receiving, storage, chipping.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Bagasse operations are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Recycled paper operations are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Storage methods and facilities are discussed with the aid of process flow diagrams. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Explain pulping operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The mechanical processes are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Groundwood, thermomechanical and chemi-thermomechanical pulping.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Machines and equipment used in the mechanical pulping processes are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Groundwood, thermomechanical and chemi-thermomechanical pulping.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The chemical processes are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Kraft, sulphite (acid), neutral sulphite semi-chemical (NSSC) and soda.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    By-products resulting from the chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Turpentine, soap (tall oil).
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Machines and equipment used in the chemical pulping processes are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Kraft, sulphite (acid), neutral sulphite semi-chemical (NSSC) and soda.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Mechanical and chemical pulping processes are compared with regards to applications, physical and costing criteria. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Cost, strength, printability, colour and equipment.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Explain stock preparation operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The stock preparation process is explained with the aid of a flow diagram. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Machines and equipment used in the stock preparation process are discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Machines and equipment should include but are not limited to repulpers, refiners, deflakers, cleaners, screens, thickeners, flotation cells, pulp washing equipment, save-all and DAF.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The chemicals added to the pulp in the stock preparation process are described and their purpose explained in terms of their impact on the final product or the rest of the process. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Water circulation systems associated with the stock preparation process are discussed with the aid of flow diagrams. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Explain wet and dry end operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The wet end process is explained with the aid of a flow diagram. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Components of the wet end process should include but are not limited to cleaning, screening, thick-stock metering, de-aeration, headboxes, forming and dewatering, pressing, water recirculation systems, fibre recovery systems, vacuum systems, steam systems.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The basic operating principles of machines and equipment used in the wet end process are explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Machines and equipment should include but are not limited to thick-stock metering equipment, dearation systems, headboxes, cleaners, screens, forming and dewatering equipment, presses, dandyroll, vacuum equipment, machine clothing and steam equipment.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The dry end process is explained with the aid of diagrams and sketches. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The basic operating principles of machines and equipment used in the dry end process are explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Machines and equipment should include but are not limited to cylinders, impingement equipment, TAD's, radiators, steam systems, moisture removal and size press systems.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Explain finishing operations. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The coating process is discussed and explained with the aid of process flow diagrams. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The coating process should include but is not limited to coating preparation, metering of the coating, application of the coating, drying of the coating and finishing of the coating.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The working of machines and equipment used in the coating process are explained with the aid of process flow diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Machines and equipment should include but are not limited to blade, air knife, rod and roll coaters.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The winding process and winding equipment are explained with the aid of diagrams and sketches. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Finishing and converting processes and equipment are explained with the aid of diagrams and sketches.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Finishing and converting processes and equipment are explained with the aid of diagrams and sketches. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 2 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency.
  • Only an assessor with considerable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this Unit Standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.
  • Direct observation in simulated or actual work conditions is required. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Qualifying learners understand and can:

    Explain the names, functions and locations of:
  • All items of installed equipment.
  • Raw material/s.
  • Finished product/s.

    Describe the properties and characteristics of:
  • Raw material/s.
  • Product/s.
  • Process equipment.
  • Auxiliary equipment.
  • Process system/s.

    Explain the purpose of the:
  • Process, in terms of product/s, efficiencies and quality:

    Explain the causes, effects and implications of:
  • Process variables.
  • Raw material variables (suppliers).
  • Product variables (customers).
  • Hazards.
  • Not complying with safety standards.
  • Not complying with standard operating procedures.
  • Not complying with quality specifications.

    Demonstrate procedures and techniques of:
  • Standard Operating for the starting up, monitoring, controlling and shutting down of the process.
  • Recording and reporting data.

    Explain the regulations, legislation, agreements and policies related to:
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act.
  • Environmental issues.
  • Housekeeping.
  • Company Safety Procedures.
  • Standard Operating procedures.
  • Quality specifications. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    The learner is able to identify and solve problems in which responses display that responsible decisions, using critical and creative thinking, have been made by:
  • Identifying by-products resulting from pulp and paper manufacturing processes.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain pulping operations.
  • Explain stock preparation operations.
  • Explain wet and dry end operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    The learner is able to organise and manage himself and his activities responsibly and effectively by:
  • Identifying machines and equipment used in pulp and paper manufacturing processes.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain pulping operations.
  • Explain stock preparation operations.
  • Explain wet and dry end operations.
  • Explain finishing operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    The learner is able to collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information when:
  • Comparing mechanical and chemical pulping processes.
  • Describing the physical properties of hardwoods and softwoods.
  • Explaining raw material handling processes.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain the basic properties and uses of raw materials.
  • Explain pulping operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    The learner is able to communicate effectively by using mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations during:
  • Preparing and presenting a range of process flow diagrams.
  • Preparing and presenting a range of freehand sketches of equipment.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain raw material handling and storage operations.
  • Explain pulping operations.
  • Explain stock preparation operations.
  • Explain wet and dry end operations.
  • Explain finishing operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    The learner is able to use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others by:
  • Describing machines and equipment used in pulp and paper manufacturing processes.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcomes:
  • Explain pulping operations.
  • Explain stock preparation operations.
  • Explain wet and dry end operations.
  • Explain finishing operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by:
  • Explaining raw material handling and storage operations.

    Refer to the following Specific Outcome:
  • Explain raw material handling and storage operations. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large by:
  • Understanding the role of pulp and paper manufacturing processes in the industry and the effect it has on the growth and development of the organisation, its customers and employees.

    Refer to all Specific Outcomes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard replaces unit standard 110051, "Demonstrate understanding of pulp and paper making manufacturing processes", Level 2, 10 credits. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Core  61929   National Certificate: Pulp and Paper Operations  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Reregistered  2023-06-30  FPMSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. Dr M Investments 
    2. Mpact Operations Paper Springs 
    3. VEB CELE & Associates (Pty) Ltd 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.