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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Identify geographical and geological features from aerial photographs 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
262277  Identify geographical and geological features from aerial photographs 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 3  NQF Level 03 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard will be useful to people who are responsible for identifying surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph.

People credited with this unit standard are able to:
  • Demonstrate the knowledge required to examine aerial photographs so as to identify surface geographical and geological features.
  • Plan and prepare to identify surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph.
  • Identify surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph.
  • Compile and present reports. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    It is assumed that learners are already competent in:
  • Communication at NQF Level 2.
  • Mathematical Literacy at NQF Level 2.
  • Understanding of map reading techniques.
  • Knowledge of surface features and surface processes.
  • Knowledge of the local stratigraphy.
  • Gological knowledge.
  • Effective communication skills, both oral and written, and proficiency in compiling reports in accordance with scientific principles and the use of the appropriate nomenclature. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    N/A 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate the knowledge required to examine aerial photographs so as to identify surface geographical and geological features. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The fundamental characteristics of an aerial photograph are described in terms of the applicable principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The fundamental processes pertinent to the taking of an aerial photograph are described in terms of the applicable principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The fundamental processes pertinent to the identification of geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph are described in terms of the applicable principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The techniques and equipment are described that can be utilized to identify surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph in terms of the applicable methods. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Stereoscope.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The contents of the work instruction and the consequences of non-compliance with the requirements are described in terms of the potential impact on the processing, interpretation and modelling of the aerial photographic interpretation results. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The importance of selecting a set of aerial photographs at an appropriate scale so as to comply with the work instruction is discussed in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The consequences of failing and/or incorrectly identifying all the geological features present, and inadequately describing and poorly recording geological parameters and surface features during the identification procedure, are described in terms of the potential effect on occupational health and safety, equipment, the environment and potential future exploitation of mineral resources. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Structural features.
  • Lithological contacts.
  • Topography.
  • Human activities.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Potential anomalies in the aerial photographs are identified and described and their possible impact on the processing, interpretation and modelling of the aerial photographic interpretation results discussed in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The relationship between the scale of the aerial photograph and the resolution of individual features on the aerial photograph is discussed and its significance explained in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The consequences and the effect on the reliability of the data are described if the total aerial photograph is not adequately examined. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    The regional geology is described in terms of the stratigraphic sequence, lithology, structure and surface characteristics. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 12 
    The regional topography, drainage pattern and human activities are described in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 13 
    The relationship between the geology, soil, vegetation and human activities within the area covered by the aerial photographs are discussed and described in the mining context. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 14 
    The consequences of not complying with the relevant statutory and mine specific regulations are explained in terms of the possible and probable impact on occupational health and safety, equipment, the environment and potential future exploitation. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Plan and prepare to identify surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Permission to enter the workplace, where required, is obtained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The tools, materials (including special overlay film, markers and removal solvents) and equipment required for the exercise are selected, examined and verified in accordance with the work instruction received. Defective tools, materials and equipment are dealt with in accordance with the laid down procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The appropriate aerial photographs, topographical maps and geological plans are selected, at an appropriate scale, to conform to the requirements of the work instruction. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The workplace details are determined, verified and recorded, all in accordance with the work instruction received and targets set. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Aerial photograph reference number.
  • Workplace co-ordinates.
  • Trig beacons and reference number.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The details of the geology of the selected area are obtained in accordance with the work instruction received. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Previous geological mapping.
  • Adjacent area information.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The aerial photographs are examined to ensure complete coverage of the selected area and incomplete coverage is dealt with in accordance with laid down procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    The actions to be taken in the event of encountering anomalies on the selected aerial photographs are described in accordance with the laid down procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Hazardous and sub-standard conditions found during the examination of the workplace are dealt with in accordance with laid down procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include any one or a combination of the following:
  • Slippery surfaces.
  • Electricity in close proximity to water.
  • Sharp edges.
  • Poor illumination.
  • Operating machinery in close proximity.
  • Spillage of fluids.
  • Dust.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Identify surface geographical and geological features on an aerial photograph. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The details of the work locality are determined and recorded in accordance with the laid down procedure in the required format. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Aerial photograph reference number.
  • Aerial photograph orientation.
  • Co-ordinates of area.
  • Reference survey peg(s).
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The aerial photographs are orientated and joined to obtain a three dimensional perspective when viewed through the stereoscope in accordance with normal procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The tools, materials and equipment required for the exercise are used in accordance with laid down procedures and manufacturer's specifications, when required. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Stereoscope.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The scale and resolution of the aerial photographs is determined and/or confirmed in accordance with geological practice. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Lithological units/markers are identified and marked off in accordance with geological principles and laid down procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    Structural features are identified and marked off in accordance with geological principles and laid down procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Faults.
  • Folds.
  • Major joints/zone.
  • Intrusions.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Geological parameters are correctly identified, where present, described and recorded in accordance with laid down procedures and required format. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Direction of dip and strike of individual lithologies/structural features.
  • Relative thickness of individual lithological units.
  • Outcrop pattern of selected lithological units.
  • Structural features.
  • Igneous bodies.
  • Unconformities.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    Evidence of previous and current mining activity is identified, described and recorded in accordance with laid down procedures and required format. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Mines.
  • Quarries.
  • Excavations.
  • Prospecting.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    The effect of structural features and/or igneous intrusions on individual lithological units are identified, described and confirmed in accordance with laid down procedures and required format. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    The appropriate surface features are identified, described and their data confirmed in accordance with laid down procedures and required format. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 11 
    Work related hazards and associated risks that have an effect on a safe and healthy work environment are dealt with in accordance with the laid down procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Must include:
  • Eye strain.
  • Incorrect posture.
     

  • SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Compile and present reports. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The tools, materials and equipment are cleaned, ready for future use, in accordance with site-specific requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The workplace is cleaned to comply with documented and recognised good housekeeping practices. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The aerial photographs are filed and or stored in accordance with the laid down procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The necessary report(s) is compiled and submitted in the required format and in accordance with the laid down procedure. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The report reflects the geological and geographical findings accurately and completely in accordance with geological practice and principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The completion of the work is communicated to the relevant personnel, when required and anomalous conditions emphasized in accordance with site-specific requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this unit standard may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    The following embedded knowledge is addressed in an integrated way in the unit standard:
  • The purpose and function of using aerial photographs to identify geographical and geological features, and the impact in terms of occupational health and safety and financial terms.
  • The characteristics of aerial photographs.
  • Procedures, techniques and equipment used.
  • The ability to recognize structural, lithological, topographic and human activity features on an aerial photograph.
  • The ability to identify and recognize anomalous conditions on an aerial photograph and to employ corrective actions in the event of these anomalous conditions.
  • The ability to determine selected geological parameters from an aerial photograph.
  • Associated occupational hazards and risks, their mitigating actions and consequences of not doing so.
  • An understanding that the learner's output can have a significant effect on the processing of the data where these data are utilized for geological modeling purposes.
  • Use of a stereoscope.
  • Recording and reporting requirements and procedures. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to identify the various geological and surface features present on the aerial photographs according to the correct procedure indicates that the learner can make decisions, using critical and creative thinking processes. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organisation or community.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to accept and interpret work instructions correctly and to request assistance, when required, indicates that he/she can work effectively as a team member in the bigger organisational structure. The standard of work performance will affect the efficiency of the team or group as a whole and the ability of the learner to correctly identify lithological units and structural features present on the aerial photograph and correctly process the geological data will indicate his/her effective relationship with the group. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively.
  • Note: The correct identification, measuring and recording of the geological data within the required time and legal constraints will indicate that the learner can organise and manage activities in his/her work environment. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COLLECTING 
    Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to correctly identify the lithological units, structural features, topographic features and indications of human activity present on the aerial photograph and the correct recording of the required geological parameters according to accepted geological principles, will enhance his/her proficiency to collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. The correct identification of anomalous geological data that can affect the reliability of the results and their complete recording in the required format will enhance the learner's ability to critically evaluate geological data. The correlation and evaluation of the newly acquired and processed geological interpretation with adjacent geographical areas will indicate that the learner can critically evaluate information. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively, using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written presentations.
  • Note: The correct recording of the geological parameters, topographic features and indications of human activity and the compilation of a complete report in accordance with accepted scientific principles and nomenclature will indicate the learner's efficiency in written presentations. The appropriate communication with the relevant personnel with regard to the reporting of anomalous data and/or conditions will indicate his/her proficiency in effective oral communication. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and occupational health of others.
  • Note: The correct use of scientific geological nomenclature and technical knowledge will indicate that the learner is proficient in the appropriate use of science and technology. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognizing that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to identify the lithological units, structural features, topographic features and human activity data present on the aerial photographs and their relationships with each other will indicate his/her understanding that a specific data type cannot be evaluated in isolation. The learners' ability to comprehend the influence of the geological data on the mining process and the resulting economic impact demonstrates their understanding of the inter-relationship of the geological/mining system. Utilizing the information from other sources can enhance problem solving. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Reflect on, and explore a variety of strategies to learn more effectively and to contribute to the full development of each learner to enhance the social and economic development of the society at large.
  • Note: The ability of the learner to explore more than one strategy to solve actual and potential problems that can affect the reliability of the exercise, to communicate effectively and to organise his/her work, contributes to the development of the learner. The correct interpretation of lithological units and structural features present on the aerial photograph will indicate that the learner accepts responsibility for the economic implications of his/her actions. This will enhance the learning curve of the individual to contribute to his/her own personal growth, socio-economic development and the community at large. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    Specified Requirements:

    Specified requirements include legal and site specific requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:

    Legal:
  • Relevant Acts: e.g. Mine Health & Safety Act and Regulations, 1996 (Act no 29/1996), and Minerals Act and Regulations, 1991 (Act no 50/1991).
  • Mandatory Codes of Practice.
  • SANS and other relevant Standards.
  • Chief Inspector of Mines' Directives and instructions.
  • Guidelines issued by the Chief Inspector of Mines.

    Site Specific:
  • Hazard Identification and Risk Assessments (HIRA).
  • Occupational Health and Safety Risk Management Programme.
  • Managerial Instructions.
  • Mine Standard Procedures.
  • List of Recorded OH&S Risks.
  • Working Guides.
  • Equipment and Materials Specifications.

    Laid Down Procedures:
  • Managerial instructions, including work instructions.
  • Codes of practice.
  • Standard task procedures.
  • Risk assessment documentation.
  • Working guides.
  • Training manuals.
  • Education manuals.
  • Geological text books.

    Tools, material and equipment can include the following:
  • Aerial photographs.
  • Stereoscope.
  • Scale rule.
  • Topographical maps.
  • Geological maps and relevant map data.
  • Transparency paper.
  • China pencils.
  • Solvents for cleaning.

    An aerial photograph is a photograph in normal light of the Earth's surface flown on a grid with stereoscopic coverage, taken from the air and excludes oblique photographs and those taken from satellites. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  65549   National Certificate: Mining Technical Support  Level 3  NQF Level 03  Reregistered  2023-06-30  MQA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.