SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate knowledge of introductory principles of metallurgy 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
264115  Demonstrate knowledge of introductory principles of metallurgy 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Manufacturing and Assembly Processes 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 2  NQF Level 02 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for people who work, or intend to work in a manufacturing process or similar environment where they need to apply principles of metallurgy. It will contribute towards the achievement of a National Certificate in a manufacturing process or similar environment at NQF Level 2.

Persons credited with this unit standard are able to demonstrate understanding of:
  • The role of metals in industry.
  • The building blocks of metals.
  • The structure of metals on an atomic as well as on a microscopic scale.
  • The physical properties and behaviour of metals.
  • The mechanical properties of metals.
  • The effects of adding another element to a metal.
  • Commonly used engineering metals. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Learning assumed to be in place and Recognition of Prior Learning:

    The credits allocated to this unit standard assume that the learner has a General Education and Training Certificate (GETC) in Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Activities (NQF Level 1) or an equivalent qualification. It also assume that the learner is working towards a qualification as part of a learning programme, which integrates all the required unit standards.

    The learning time will increase if the learner does not have:
  • A relevant NQF Level 1 qualification.
  • Experience in a relevant field.

    The learning time will be decreased if the learner has experience in this field because:
  • The learning programme will be adjusted to build on what the learner already knows.
  • The learner can apply to have prior learning recognised. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    Freehand sketches may illustrate the discussions. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the role of metals in industry. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Engineering materials include wood, leather, ceramics, rubber, plastics, and metals. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Types of engineering materials and examples of their application in manufactured products are discussed according to material theory. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    General characteristics of a metal are described according to material theory. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Advantages of metals over other engineering materials are described according to material theory. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate basic knowledge of the building blocks of metals. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Understanding of the classic (Bohr) atom model is shown according to material science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The notions cations and anions are explained according to material science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Metallic elements are named as per the Periodic Table. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the structure of metals on an atomic and a microscopic scale. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The general arrangement of the atoms in a metal crystal is shown according to material science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The metallic bond and associated electron cloud are discussed according to Physical science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The main crystal structures that occur in metals are described according to material science. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Main crystal structures include Body-Centred Cubic (BCC), Face-Centred Cubic (FCC) and Hexagonal.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The influence of temperature on the crystal structure of iron is discussed according to physical science. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The notions "poly-crystal", "grain boundary" and "fine grain" are explained according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The correct handling of a metallurgical microscope is shown and the grain size of suitable samples measured according to standard operating procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate understanding of the physical properties and behaviour of metals. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Physical properties and behaviours include conductivity, density, magnetism, melting point. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of metals in general are compared with other engineering materials according to principles of metallurgy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Distinction is made between "light" and "heavy" pure metals according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Pure metals that are magnetic are identified according to the Periodic Table. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Melting point(s) of common pure metals are identified according to the Periodic Table. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Melting points vary from below room temperature to above 3000oC; Melting points need to be accurate to 100C.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate a basic understanding of the mechanical properties of metals. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Mechanical properties include hardness, strength, ductility, impact toughness. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    "Hardness" and strength are defined according to mechanical properties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Principles and advantages of the Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers and rebound methods of hardness testing are discussed according to mechanical properties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The basic principle of the tensile test is discussed and an example of a result sketched according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The notion "ductility" and how this is measured in the tensile test are discussed according to standard operating procedures. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Notched bar impact test and its purpose are explained according to standard operating procedures. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Demonstrate understanding of the effects of adding another element to a metal. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Distributions of solute atoms in the lattice of the solvent are discussed according to principles of metallurgy. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Distributions include interstitial and substitutional.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Phase diagram of two mutually fully soluble elements is sketched according to principles of metallurgy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Effects of relative atom size on the lattice of a solution and on mechanical properties is shown according to principles of metallurgy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The notions "partial solubility" and "solubility limit" and the formation of inter-metallic compounds are discussed according to principles of metallurgy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    General effects of inter-metallic compounds on mechanical properties are discussed according to principles of metallurgy. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Demonstrate understanding of commonly used engineering metals. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Discussion includes each object's main element, major alloying element(s) if any, how it is produced, and why that material is used for that specific object and production route.
  • Objects include tin cans, brass screws, aircraft wings, window frames, electric wires, car parts such as springs, bonnet, engine block, wheel hub and prop shaft, kitchen sink, 3-leg pot, cold chisel and church bell. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Main element and major alloying element(s) are discussed according to principles of metallurgy. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Production route are explained according to foundry processes. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Production routes include casting, rolling, forging, pressing, spinning, drawing, heat treating.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The reasons for using a specific metal for the object and its associated production route, are explained according to principles of metallurgy. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 4 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency. Only an Assessor with suitable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Things I know and can explain:

    Names & functions of:
  • Metallurgical microscope.
  • Hardness tester(s).
  • Tensile tester.

    Attributes, descriptions, characteristics & properties:
  • Engineering materials.
  • Metal.
  • Cations and anions.
  • Elements on Periodic Table.
  • Metallic bond and associated electron cloud.
  • Poly-crystal, grain boundary, fine grain.
  • Conductivity, density, magnetism, melting point.
  • Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of metals.
  • Pure metals.
  • Hardness testing.
  • Inter-metallic compounds.
  • Alloying elements.

    Purpose of:
  • Alloying elements.
  • Testing mechanical properties.
  • Metallurgical microscope.

    Processes, events, causes and effects, implications:
  • Effects of inter-metallic compounds on mechanical properties.
  • Effects of relative atom size on the lattice of a solution and on mechanical properties.

    Theory, rules, principles, laws:
  • Classic (Bohr) atom model.
  • Cations and anions.
  • Metallic bond and associated electron cloud.
  • Conductivity, density, magnetism, melting point.
  • Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of metals.
  • Mechanical properties of metals.

    Relationships, systems:
  • Relationship between production and consumption of metals. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively:
  • By explaining concepts clearly and making use of freehand sketches to highlight aspects of importance. 

  • UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically:
  • By understanding properties of metals and how they are investigated. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    N/A 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  66512   National Certificate: Foundry Operations  Level 2  NQF Level 02  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2013-11-07  MERSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.