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SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD: 

Demonstrate an understanding of basic physical metallurgy and its applications 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
264376  Demonstrate an understanding of basic physical metallurgy and its applications 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Manufacturing and Assembly Processes 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Manufacturing and Assembly 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Reregistered  2018-07-01  2023-06-30  SAQA 06120/18 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2024-06-30   2027-06-30  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard is replaced by: 
US ID Unit Standard Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Credits Replacement Status

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for people who work, or intend to work in a manufacturing process or similar environment where they need to apply principles of metallurgy. It will contribute towards the achievement of a Further Education and Training (FET) Certificate in a manufacturing process or similar environment at NQF Level 4.

Persons credited with this unit standard are able to demonstrate understanding of:
  • The need for different properties in different metal products.
  • The meaning of mechanical properties of metals and how they are measured.
  • The movement of atoms in solid metals and the effects of their re-arrangement.
  • Phase transformations, binary phase diagrams and effects on mechanical properties.
  • The heat treatment of metals.
  • The hot and cold forming of metals. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    The credits allocated to this unit standard assume that the learner has a National Certificate in Foundry Operations NQF Level 3 or an equivalent qualification. It also assume that the learner is working towards a qualification as part of a learning programme, which integrates all the required unit standards.

    The learning time will increase if the learner does not have:
  • A relevant NQF Level 3 qualification.
  • Experience in a relevant field.
  • Demonstrated competence in unit standards Demonstrate understanding of chemical reactions in, and the solidification of, liquid metals at NQF Level 3.

    The learning time will be decreased if the learner has experience in this field because:
  • The learning programme will be adjusted to build on what the learner already knows.
  • The learner can apply to have prior learning recognised. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    The application of basic physical metallurgy includes how properties of metals are influenced by alloying, deformation and heat treatment. 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of the need for different properties in different metal products. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Properties include hardness, strength, toughness, cold formability, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, conductivity, and specific weight. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The properties of various steel products are compared according to material properties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Steel products include, but are not limited to, a beer can, the wire in a hoisting rope, a stainless kitchen knife, an engine outlet valve, chicken mesh.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The properties of various iron products are compared according to material properties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Iron products include, but are not limited to, a cooking pot, an engine block, liners in a ball mill.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The properties of various aluminium products are compared according to material properties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aluminium products include, but are not limited to, a beer can, an aircraft wing, an alloy car wheel.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The properties of various copper products are compared according to material properties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Copper products include, but are not limited to, a coin, a ship's propeller, a high voltage power cable, a church bell, fittings and screws.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate understanding of the concept basic mechanical properties of metals and how it is measured. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Definitions for the basic mechanical properties of metals are given according to metal properties. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Basic mechanical properties include hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and impact toughness.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The basic working of some hardness testers is explained according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Hardness testers include those for Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The tensile test is explained according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discussion includes working of the tensile testing machine, properties measured and understanding of the stress-strain curve.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The notched bar impact test is explained according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Outcomes include working of the impact testing machine, property measured and understanding of the influence of the test temperature.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate understanding of atomic movement in the lattice of solid metals and its effect on mechanical properties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The manners in which atoms of a second element can be dissolved in the lattice of the main element, and resulting effects on mechanical properties, are discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    Defects in the atomic lattice and their effect on mechanical properties are discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Defects include vacancies, dislocations and grain boundaries.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The movement of atoms in an atomic lattice (diffusion) is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Points of discussion include atomic sizes, concentration differences, lattice defects, temperature.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate understanding of phase transformations in solid metals. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The changes taking place in the atomic lattice at the transformation temperature of allotropic metals is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Examples of (pure) allotropic metals include iron and tin.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The phase transformation in a binary alloy with partial solid solubility is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Example used for discussion may be Lead with up to 19% Tin, cooling from 200 oC to 20oC.
  • Topics of discussion include the formation of a second phase and the influence of cooling speed.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The formation of a compound in a solid metal (precipitation) and its general effect on mechanical properties is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
  • Example used for discussion may be Iron with 1 - 2% Carbon, cooling from 1100 oC to 750oC, or Copper with 2% Beryllium, or Aluminium with 3% Copper.
  • Topics of discussion are the formation of a secondary compound (precipitate) and the influence of cooling speed on its appearance.
     

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    The formation of the eutectoid "pearlite" in steel is explained according to metallurgical principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate understanding of the binary phase diagram applicable to the type of metal(s) a works/foundry/factory produces and its implications for the phase transformations that take place at various temperatures and at various solute concentrations. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • For an iron or steel producer: the Fe-C diagram up to 6% C.
  • For a light alloys producer: the Al-Cu diagram up to 50% Cu, or the Al-Si diagram up to 20% Si, or the Al-Mg diagram up to 40% Mg; or the Mg-Al diagram up to 50% Al.
  • For a cuprous producer: the Cu-Sn diagram up to 30% Sn. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The applicable binary phase diagram is sketched and labelled according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The phases that occur at various concentrations and temperatures are discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Basic alloys produced in the learner's environment are discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discussion includes main compositions and reasons for those compositions.
     

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Demonstrate understanding of the heat treatments of metals and their influences on mechanical properties. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
  • Discussions include purpose, execution and explanation of the heat treatments.
  • Reference is made to applicable binary phase diagrams. 

  • ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    Stress relieving is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The softening of metals by solution annealing (solution treatment) is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Precipitation hardening is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Normalising of steel is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    Hardening of steel by quenching is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discussion includes martensite, effect of cooling speed on the transformation, the Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram, general effect of alloying elements on the CCT diagram and types of quench media.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    The tempering of steel is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    Discussion includes the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties according to metallurgical principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Demonstrate understanding of the deformation of metals and its influence on mechanical properties. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The relationship between temperature and plasticity of a metal is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The production of hot rolled plate, profile or rod from slab, bloom or billet is explained according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The discussion includes soaking, mill stand(s), rolls, multiple passes, cutting or coiling.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    Cold working is discussed according to standard operating procedures. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Discussion includes processes (cold rolling, drawing, deep drawing, ironing), effect on the grains and lattice, internal stresses and mechanical properties.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    Re-crystallisation is discussed according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    The discussion includes deformation, internal stress and temperature.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    The production of shapes by means of extrusion is explained according to metallurgical principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 8 
    Demonstrate basic understanding of Metallography. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Micro-structures include different phases, eutectoids, precipitates, intermetallic compounds. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The structures and phases observed with a metallographic microscope are identified according to metallurgical principles. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The origin of the structures and phases observed is briefly explained according to metallurgical principles. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 9 
    Demonstrate understanding of the mechanisms by which different properties are achieved in different metal products. 
    OUTCOME RANGE 
    Mechanical properties are explained with reference to composition and micro-structural characteristics resulting from processes such as hot and cold working and heat treatment. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    The mechanical properties of various steel products are explained according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Steel products include a beer can, chicken mesh, the wire in a hoisting rope, a sword, a stainless knife, a stainless spoon, an engine crankshaft.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    The mechanical properties of various aluminium products are explained according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Aluminium products include a beer can, sheet for an aircraft wing, an alloy car wheel.
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    The mechanical properties of various copper products are explained according to metallurgical principles. 
    ASSESSMENT CRITERION RANGE 
    Copper products include a coin, a ship's propeller, a high voltage power cable, fittings and screws.
     


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • An assessor, accredited with a relevant NQF Level 4 or higher qualification, will assess the learner's competency. Only an Assessor with suitable first hand experience in process operations will assess the learner's competency.
  • Anyone assessing a learner or moderating the assessment of a learner against the qualification must be registered as an assessor with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Any institution offering learning that will enable the achievement of this qualification must be accredited as a provider with the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Assessment and moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant Education, Training, Quality, Assurance (ETQA) Body, or by an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA, according to the ETQA's policies and guidelines for assessment and moderation.
  • Moderation must include both internal and external moderation of assessments, unless ETQA policies specify otherwise. Moderation should also encompass achievement of the competence described in the associated unit standards.
  • Anyone wishing to be assessed against this qualification may apply to be assessed by any assessment agency, assessor or provider institution that is accredited by the relevant ETQA. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Things I know and can explain:

    Names and functions of:
  • Equipments for testing mechanical properties.
  • Heat Treatment processes.
  • Rolling and other forming processes.

    Attributes, descriptions, characteristics and properties:
  • Hardness.
  • Strength.
  • Toughness.
  • Wear resistance.
  • Corrosion resistance.
  • Heat resistance.
  • Formability.

    Sensory cues:
  • Appearance of micro-structures under a microscope.

    Purpose of:
  • Mechanical tests.
  • Micrography.
  • Phase diagrams.
  • Alloying.
  • Heat treatment operations.
  • Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams.
  • Cold working.

    Processes, events, causes and effects, implications:
  • Causes and effects of atomic movement in solid metals.
  • Allotropic transformations.
  • Precipitation.
  • Recrystallisation.

    Procedures and techniques:
  • Mechanical testing.

    Theory: rules, principles, laws:
  • Diffusion (Fick's Law).
  • Full and partial solid solubility.

    Relationships, systems:
  • Relationships between microstructures and metal properties. 

  • UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO SCIENCE 
    Use science and technology effectively and critically:
  • By using fundamental principles of physical metallurgy to understand the influences of changes in chemistry, heat treatment and/or deformation parameters on the properties of metals. 

  • UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    REREGISTRATION HISTORY 
    As per the SAQA Board decision/s at that time, this unit standard was Reregistered in 2012; 2015. 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    This unit standard will be replaced by unit standard 377100, which is "Demonstrate an understanding of basic Foundry metallurgy and its applications", Level 4, 8 credits, as soon as 377100 is registered. 

    QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  66489   Further Education and Training Certificate: Foundry Operations  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2013-11-07  MERSETA 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. QTE Training & Consulting cc T/A QTE (GERMISTON) (TP) 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.