SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED UNIT STANDARD THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

Demonstrate understanding of the fundamentals of tailings dam - Level two 
SAQA US ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE
9735  Demonstrate understanding of the fundamentals of tailings dam - Level two 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Mining and Minerals 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY
-  
FIELD SUBFIELD
Field 06 - Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology Fabrication and Extraction 
ABET BAND UNIT STANDARD TYPE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
Undefined  Regular  Level 4  NQF Level 04  25 
REGISTRATION STATUS REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE SAQA DECISION NUMBER
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Reregistered" 
2005-04-13  2008-04-13  SAQA 0859/05 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2009-04-13   2012-04-13  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This unit standard does not replace any other unit standard and is not replaced by any other unit standard. 

PURPOSE OF THE UNIT STANDARD 
This unit standard is for persons responsible for the second level of supervision of the operation of tailings dams. A person credited with this unit standard can demonstrate knowledge relating to:
  • The legal and specified requirements pertaining to tailings dams.
  • The tailings generation and disposal cycle.
  • The fundamental properties and behaviour of tailings.
  • The fundamentals of tailings dam stability.
  • The significance of freeboard.
  • The different methods of tailings disposal and the motivation and application thereof.
  • The purpose and standards of the components of a tailings dam. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
    Literacy and numeracy at ABET 4 or equivalent.
    Demonstrate the fundamentals of tailings dams - Level one.

    Competence in the following:
  • The health and safety practices within the tailings environment.
  • Basic understanding of gravity, pressure, mass, friction, erosion and dimension. 

  • UNIT STANDARD RANGE 
    None 

    Specific Outcomes and Assessment Criteria: 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 1 
    Demonstrate understanding of the fundamentals of tailings dam - Level two 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The legal and specified requirements pertaining to tailing dams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. Tailings generation and disposal cycle. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The fundamentals properties and behaviour of tailings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. Basic concepts of tailing dam stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. Significance of freeboard. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The different methods of tailings disposal and the motivation and application thereof. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The purpose and standards of the components of a tailings dam. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 2 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the legal and specified requirements pertaining to tailings dams. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The Environmental Management Program concept and approval process is explained in accordance with specified requirements and the consequences of not adhering to the above are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The relevant Mine Health and Safety Act appointments pertaining to the tailings disposal operation are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The objectives, structure, and intent of the SABS 0286, Code of Practice: Mine Residue are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The content, purpose and implications of the site specific Mandatory Code of Practice are explained in accordance with specified requirements and the consequences of not adhering to the above are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The content, purpose and implications of the operating manual are explained in accordance with specified requirements and the consequences of not adhering to the above are explained. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The legal and specified requirements pertaining to a safe, healthy work environment in the tailings dam operation and the consequences of not adhering to the above are explained. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 3 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the generation and disposal cycle of tailings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The phases of the tailings disposal process life cycle are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The origin of tailings is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The transformation of tailings from slurry in the process plant to a de-watered product on the tailings dam is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The cycle of water in the tailings generation and disposal process is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 4 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the fundamental properties and behaviour of tailings. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The concept and significance of particle size distribution is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The concepts of specific gravity, relative density, percentage solids and dry density and their relevance to tailings disposal are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concepts of permeability, consolidation and shear strength and their relevance to tailings disposal are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The potential risks inherent in tailings disposal are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 5 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the fundamentals of tailings dam stability. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The concept of gravity causing a tailings slope to fail is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The concept of seepage and the phreatic surface in a tailings dam is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concept of effective stress and its effect on shear strength is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The concept of shear strength resisting the tailings slope failure is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The concept of the factor of safety is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 6 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the significance of freeboard. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The concept of rainwater accumulating on the top of the dam is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The concept of water flowing over the top of a dam and eroding the outer wall is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concept of a slurry flow is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The concept of freeboard to prevent the overtopping of a dam is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The freeboard measurement and monitoring system is explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 7 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the different methods of tailings disposal. 
    OUTCOME NOTES 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to the different methods of tailings disposal and the motivation and application thereof. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The reasons why a particular type of tailings dam is developed for a specific type of tailings are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The concepts, advantages and disadvantages of up-and down streaming and center lining are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The concepts and application of ring dyke, side hill and valley dams are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The different types and application of deposition systems i.e. open ending, paddocking, spigotting and cycloning are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    SPECIFIC OUTCOME 8 
    Demonstrate knowledge relating to purpose & requisite standards of the components of a tailings dam. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
     

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 1 
    1. The purpose and requisite standards of the slurry pipelines and deposition system are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 2 
    2. The purposes and requisite standards of the starter and toe walls are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 3 
    3. The purposes and requisite standards of the filter drains and outlet pipes are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 4 
    4. The purposes and requisite standards of the slopes and benches are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 5 
    5. The purpose and requisite standards of penstocks are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 6 
    6. The purpose and requisite standards of catchment paddocks are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 7 
    7. The purpose and requisite standards of the pool wall are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 8 
    8. The purpose and requisite standards of the decanting system are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 9 
    9. The purpose and requisite standards of solution trenches are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 

    ASSESSMENT CRITERION 10 
    10. The purpose and requisite standards of the return water system are explained in accordance with specified requirements. 


    UNIT STANDARD ACCREDITATION AND MODERATION OPTIONS 
    1. Anyone assessing a learner against this unit standard must be registered as an assessor with the relevant ETQA.

    2. Any institution offering learning that will enable achievement of this unit standard must be accredited as a provider through the relevant ETQA by SAQA.

    3. Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the relevant ETQA according the moderation guidelines in the relevant qualification and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

    UNIT STANDARD ESSENTIAL EMBEDDED KNOWLEDGE 
    Embedded knowledge is addressed in all the specific outcomes and assessment criteria throughout the unit standard. The embedded knowledge includes basic verbal communication skills, including following instructions, expressing statements of situation, co-ordinate with others and basic comprehension skills relating to understanding the separate functions and tasks as being interrelated and integral to the whole. 

    UNIT STANDARD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD LINKAGES 
    N/A 


    Critical Cross-field Outcomes (CCFO): 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO IDENTIFYING 
    Solve problems. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO WORKING 
    Work effectively with others as a member of a team/group/organisation/community. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO ORGANISING 
    Organise and manage oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO COMMUNICATING 
    Communicate effectively using visual, mathematics and language skills in the modes of oral and written presentations. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO DEMONSTRATING 
    Demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems. 

    UNIT STANDARD CCFO CONTRIBUTING 
    Contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of society at large. 

    UNIT STANDARD ASSESSOR CRITERIA 
    N/A 

    UNIT STANDARD NOTES 
    Terminology:

    1. Specified Requirements include Legal Requirements and are contained in one or more of the following documents:
  • Managerial instructions
  • Codes of practice
  • Plant standards
  • Standard task procedures
  • Risk assessment documentation
  • Working guides
  • Manufacturer`s specifications
  • Health and Safety management programme
  • Mines Health and Safety Act
  • Minerals Act and regulations
  • Security procedures
  • Environmental Legislation

    2. Tailings - the waste residue generated by mines and industries after the recovery of the desirable commodities.

    3. Tailings dam - the repository where the tailings are deposited for disposal.

    4. Penstock - the vertical drainage tower typically located in the basin of the dam.

    5. Catwalk - constructed access to a penstock.

    6. Deposition - the process or act of depositing the tailings typically as a liquid mixture.

    7. Slurry - the mixture of tailings and water.

    8. Freeboard -- the vertical difference in level between the water level and the lowest point on the perimeter wall.

    9. Stability - the concept of something not changing - in particular the slope of the tailings dam remaining static i.e. in place.

    10. Phreatic surface - The level in the tailings where the water pressure in the pores is atmospheric.

    11. Starter and Toe walls - the earth walls defining the peripheral extent of the tailings deposit.

    12. Filter Drains - the permeable zones buried in the tailings that collect and discharge pore water from the dam.

    13. Benches - the horizontal steps in the side slopes of a dam.

    14. Bench Penstock - the drain pipes on the benches.

    15. Catchment Paddocks - the earth impoundment structures around the base of a dam that contains contaminated run-off from the tailings.

    16. Return Water System - the system of trenches, dumps, silt traps dams, pumps and pipelines to collect water discharged from the tailings dam and transfer this back to the process plant. 

  • QUALIFICATIONS UTILISING THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
      ID QUALIFICATION TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL STATUS END DATE PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QA FUNCTIONARY
    Elective  49049   Further Education and Training Certificate: Lump Ore Beneficiation  Level 4  NQF Level 04  Passed the End Date -
    Status was "Reregistered" 
    2009-02-18  Was MQA until Last Date for Achievement 


    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS UNIT STANDARD: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    1. FINSCH DIAMOND MINE(PTY) LTD 
    2. THUSANG METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING TRAINING AND CONSULTING CC 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.