SAQA All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.
SOUTH AFRICAN QUALIFICATIONS AUTHORITY 
REGISTERED QUALIFICATION THAT HAS PASSED THE END DATE: 

National Certificate: Immigration Law Enforcement 
SAQA QUAL ID QUALIFICATION TITLE
50418  National Certificate: Immigration Law Enforcement 
ORIGINATOR
SGB Visible Policing 
PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
Was PSETA until Last Date for Achievement  OQSF - Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework 
QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
National Certificate  Field 08 - Law, Military Science and Security  Safety in Society 
ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
Undefined  120  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  Regular-Unit Stds Based 
REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
Passed the End Date -
Status was "Registered" 
SAQA 0266/06  2006-06-29  2009-06-29 
LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
2010-06-29   2013-06-29  

In all of the tables in this document, both the pre-2009 NQF Level and the NQF Level is shown. In the text (purpose statements, qualification rules, etc), any references to NQF Levels are to the pre-2009 levels unless specifically stated otherwise.  

This qualification is replaced by: 
Qual ID Qualification Title Pre-2009 NQF Level NQF Level Min Credits Replacement Status
66869  National Certificate: Home Affairs Services  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5  120   

PURPOSE AND RATIONALE OF THE QUALIFICATION 
Purpose:

This qualification is intended to provide a means for the development and recognition of competent Immigration Law Enforcement personnel, and will be useful for those responsible for immigration functions such as:
  • Immigration Officers.
  • South African Police Service, South African National Defence Force personnel, security guards working at ports of entry, government officials, airline liaison officers, officers doing duties at missions, embassies or consulates.
  • Foreign Affairs officials.
  • National Intelligence Agency personnel.
  • Port Managers.

    People working at any port of entry to the country may find aspects of the qualification useful.

    Qualifying learners are able to:
  • Perform general duties of an immigration official.
  • Carry out investigations related to immigration law offences.
  • Carry out arrests and arrange the detention of illegal foreigners and SA citizens for aiding and abetting illegal foreigners.
  • Assist with the prosecution of offenders and act upon instructions received from the prosecuting authority.

    Rationale:

    The qualification responds to the prevailing situation in which Immigration Law Enforcement personnel are not equipped with an all-round ability to fulfil their duties, and therefore only enact narrow components of their intended role. There is a need for people working in this field to be equipped with a broader range of competencies as outlined in this qualification.

    Immigration Law Enforcement carries with it a big responsibility to curb the influx of illegal foreigners. This qualification is needed in order to combat the general ignorance, bad habits, bad practices, poor role models, lack of guidance concerning training and lack of focus that prevails among those tasked with the role of immigration law enforcement.

    The need for greater professionalisation in this field arises in part due to the changes brought about by democracy in South Africa. During the apartheid regime, there was a limited influx of foreigners, but in post-apartheid South Africa, with the opening of our borders, the adoption of a Constitution and Bill of Rights, South Africa has increasingly become a country of transit, resources and destination. Thus the need exists to professionalise the Immigration Services in order to deliver a world class service, provide a career path, transform the field and manage the challenges associated with globalisation and freedom of movement.

    At the same time, the need exists to manage the influx of illegal foreigners. Dealing with the influx of illegal foreigners helps to curb instances of corruption related to the trafficking of illegal foreigners. Furthermore illegal foreigners (as opposed to legal foreigners) need to be monitored in terms of their impact on national security, South African resources, infrastructure, environment and services.

    This qualification, through appropriate learning programmes, is designed to equip people in this field with the necessary competencies that will enable them to deal with illegal foreigners in an effective and comprehensive manner. It is also hoped that the development of this qualification and the intended subsequent professionalisation will help to send a positive signal and example to the SADC region, Africa and the rest of the world in terms of immigration law enforcement. 

  • LEARNING ASSUMED TO BE IN PLACE AND RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING 
  • Further Education and Training Certificate at NQF Level 4.
  • Computer Skills at NQF level 3.

    Recognition of prior learning:

    This qualification can be achieved wholly or in part through recognition of prior learning in terms of the defined exit level outcomes and/or individual unit standards.

    Evidence can be presented in various ways, including international and/or previous local qualifications, products, reports, testimonials mentioning functions performed, work records, portfolios, videos of practice and performance records.

    All such evidence will be judged in accordance with the general principles of assessment and the requirements for integrated assessment.

    Access to the qualification:

    A Further Education and Training Certificate (FETC), a National Senior Certificate or equivalent working experience at the level of NQF 4. 

  • RECOGNISE PREVIOUS LEARNING? 

    QUALIFICATION RULES 
  • Fundamental - Learners are required to achieve 10 credits for the fundamental unit standards.
  • Core - Learners must achieve all 83 core credits.
  • Elective - Learners must achieve at least 27 credits of their choice from the available 64 elective credits and/or from relevant Victim Empowerment standards which will be made available. (Given that Immigration Law Enforcement Officials are often confronted by victims of crime and violence, and given the prevalence of human trafficking, officials need to be sensitised to how to detect and deal with these problems. Thus electives may be taken in the area of Victim Empowerment, as defined by unit standards that will become available in the future). 

  • EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES 
    1. Perform general duties of an immigration official.
    2. Carry out investigations related to immigration law offences.
    3. Carry out arrests and arrange the detention of illegal foreigners and South African citizens for aiding and abetting illegal foreigners.
    4. Enable the prosecution of offenders and act upon findings of prosecutions.

    Critical Cross-Field Outcomes:

    This qualification addresses the following critical cross-field outcomes, as detailed in the associated unit standards:
  • Identifying and solving problems through investigations of possible immigration law offenses.
  • Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation or community in the detection, investigation, arrest, detention and deportation of illegal foreigners.
  • Organising and managing oneself and one`s activities responsibly and effectively in the detection, investigation, arrest, detention and deportation of illegal foreigners.
  • Collecting, analysing, organising and critically evaluating information, particularly when profiling and investigating.
  • Communicating effectively orally and in writing.
  • Using science and technology effectively and critically, showing responsibility towards the environment and health of others.
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem-solving contexts do not exist in isolation.

    Learning programmes directed towards this qualification will also contribute to the full personal development of each learner and the social and economic development of the society at large, by making individuals aware of the importance of:
  • Reflecting on and exploring a variety of strategies to learn more effectively.
  • Participating as responsible citizens in the life of local, national and global communities.
  • Being culturally and aesthetically sensitive across a range of social contexts.
  • Exploring education and career opportunities; and developing entrepreneurial opportunities. 

  • ASSOCIATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 
    1.
  • The movement and sojourn of foreigners in South Africa is administered in accordance with current legislation and regulations.
  • Profiling and selection of persons are demonstrated in order to contribute towards immigration law enforcement through identification and arrests of offenders.
  • Fraudulent documentation and impostors are identified and follow-up actions are carried out in accordance with current legislation and regulations.
  • Immigration law enforcement administration is carried out according to standards set by government departments.
  • Documentation related to arrests or deportation is completed as per regulations.
  • Duties are carried out according to professional values and ethics and in keeping with the principles of human rights and democracy.

    2.
  • Investigations are carried out systematically and in cooperation with law enforcement agencies.
  • The principles of "law of evidence" and of criminal law are applied in the investigation of immigration-related offences.
  • Search and seizure operations are carried out in terms of current legislation and regulations.
  • Interviews are carried out according to procedures and contribute towards the success of investigations.
  • Suspects are dealt with in accordance with legislation and regulations.
  • Information is collated and organised in a fashion that contributes to successful investigations and record-keeping.

    3.
  • Carry out arrests and arrange the detention of illegal foreigners and SA citizens for aiding and abetting illegal foreigners.
  • Arrests are carried out according to legislation and regulations.
  • Restraining techniques are utilised in relation to the situation and comply with regulations.
  • Suspects are transported and detained as per regulations.

    4.
  • Assist with the prosecution of offenders and act upon instructions received from the prosecuting authority.
  • Case dockets are prepared, compiled and administered in a manner that aids the prosecution's case.
  • Documentation required for the prosecution is completed and stored as per regulations in order to aid the prosecuting authority.
  • Prosecutors are briefed timeously in order to contribute to the success of the court case.
  • Evidence given in a court of law is consistent with the findings of the investigation.
  • Illegal foreigners are dealt with as per given instructions and in line with regulations, including deportation where required.

    Integrated assessment:

    Assessment is to take place according to the detailed specifications indicated in the unit standards associated with each exit level outcome. Over and above the achievement of the specified unit standards, evidence of integration will be required as per the broad assessment criteria specified above, all within the context of everyday immigration law enforcement activities, dealing with divergent and random demands related to the field.

    Assessors should note that the evidence of integration could well be presented by learners when being assessed against the unit standards - thus there should not necessarily be separate assessments for each unit standard and then further assessment for integration. Well-designed assessments, including formative and summative, should make it possible to gain evidence against each unit standard while at the same time gaining evidence of integration.

    Assessment should be in accordance with the following general and specific principles:
  • The initial assessment activities should focus on gathering evidence in terms of the exit level outcomes and the main outcomes expressed in the titles of the unit standards to ensure assessment is integrated rather than fragmented. Where assessment at title level is unmanageable, then the assessment can focus on each specific outcome, or groups of specific outcomes. Take special note of the need for integrated assessment.
  • Evidence must be gathered across the entire range specified in each unit standard, as applicable, and as per the given assessment criteria. Assessment activities should be as close to the real performance as possible, and where simulations or role-plays are used, there should be supporting evidence to prove that the candidate is able to perform in the real situation.
  • All assessments should be conducted in accordance with the following universally accepted principles of assessment:
    > Use appropriate, fair and manageable methods that are integrated into real work-related or learning situations.
    > Judge evidence on the basis of its validity, currency, authenticity and sufficiency.
    > Ensure assessment processes are systematic, open and consistent. 

  • INTERNATIONAL COMPARABILITY 
    The comparison between international courses, studies and reports and this SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement reveals a very close correlation as outlined in detail below. Key differences in the South African situation, which justify the inclusion of further competencies, are the emphasis on investigation and human rights. A further difference noted is that international practices do not make distinctions between border control and immigration law enforcement as is the case in South Africa.

    Immigration Training Development Course:

    The Immigration Training Development course was developed in the USA and is considered to be the basis for training in immigration law enforcement internationally. There is a very close match between the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement and this programme as shown by the following comparison:
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Human rights - human dignity as a cornerstone of national freedom, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of human rights and democracy.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Profiling - targeting a select group, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Profile and select persons for immigration law enforcement purposes.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: INS Investigation Strategy to combat migrant smuggling, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Carry out investigations related to immigration law offences.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Recognise and gather information of significance to a professional intelligence programme, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Collect crime intelligence.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Identify and demonstrate principles of non-lethal arrest and control procedures, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Master restraining techniques.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Overview of Federal Law: Enforcement Overview of the US INS (US Immigration and Naturalization Service), Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Interpret and apply relevant legislation and related policies of Immigration Services in South Africa.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Alien Smuggling overviewTrafficking in women, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Intended inclusion of relevant standards as electives from Victim Empowerment when available.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Informant development, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: This is not an area of need at present.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Investigative techniquesInterview techniques, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Conduct a lawful search and seizureApply the principles of Law of Evidence in the investigation of crimeApply the general principles of criminal law in the investigation of crimeConduct an investigative interviewDeal with suspects in the investigation of an alleged crimeCollate crime intelligence.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Inspections overview, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Conduct inspections and control activities.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Vehicle search, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Conduct lawful search and seizure.
  • Competencies addressed by Immigration Training Development Course: Intelligence/Automated Information Systems, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Collate crime intelligence.

    Immigration Officer Academy (Botswana):

    The course is run over 22 weeks and covers basic techniques for immigration officers as well as basic policing techniques. The SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement covers all the same ground, but goes beyond this course in key areas such as investigation.

    New Zealand:

    There are no comparable qualifications in New Zealand, although there is a qualification related to Border Patrol, which is too narrow for South African purposes. Although the procedures they follow on border patrol are similar to those for immigration law enforcement, the New Zealand standards are at a much lower level (level 1 and 2), and revolve mostly around generic communication, discrimination and dispute resolution. The SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement covers these areas, but at a higher level.

    Feasibility Study for Setting up Border Control Police in Europe:

    This is a high level document which outlines the key competencies required. Our analysis showed a very close correlation between the study results and the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement, presented as follows:
  • Competencies identified by feasibility study: Risk assessment, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Profile and select persons for immigration law enforcement purposes.
  • Competencies identified by feasibility study: Training in Law, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Interpret and apply relevant legislation and related policies of Immigration Services in South Africa.
  • Competencies identified by feasibility study: Specialised knowledge of Border Matters, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: Whole qualification talks to that.
  • Competencies identified by feasibility study: Training in foreign languages, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: This as an important part, but needs to be addressed as a separate qualification in its own right, and is more appropriately addressed as a learning assumption, supported by a separate qualification. Furthermore, foreign language should be part of the job specification, and it is not realistic to include a language as part of this certificate.
  • Competencies identified by feasibility study: Physical and psychological competencies, Correlation with SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement: These are addressed more appropriately via recruitment policies.

    United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo:

    The aim of this mission was the establishment of a police service to create and maintain law and order after the war in Kosovo. This was achieved by setting up a police unit (UN Interim Administration Border Police) responsible for general law enforcement at borders and ensuring compliance with immigration laws and Border Regulations, checking of suspect documents, lawful search and seizure of docs, detention of people illegally crossing border. The compencies identified in this process are covered in the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement. In particular, there is a strong correlation on the emphasis on the need for ethical and non-biased conduct.

    Recruitment requirements for the mission was a secondary education, which is the same as is required in the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement.

    There is no split between border control and immigration law enforcement as in the South African qualifications.

    A comparison of the requirements expressed by the Kosovo mission reveals that the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement is at least on a par, and in fact extends further in terms of the strong investigative component. This is justified by virtue of the fact that in SA, immigration law enforcement is not limited to borders, but much happens inland, partly because of the porous nature of our borders, requiring profiling, investigation, interview, arrests, detaining and deporting.

    Report: State Border of the Republic of Albania - Determining of State Borders in Albania

    The report highlighted the following key competencies required:
  • Prevent border crossing.
  • Detect.
  • Seize.
  • Arrest.
  • Human Rights and Human Dignity.
  • Honour Constitution and Bilateral Agreements.

    There is a close correlation between the findings of this report and the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement. One difference however is that in Albania, police fulfil most of these functions. A further difference is that in Albania, they issue visas at ports of entry, whereas South Africa issues visas via missions abroad, but this does not impact on the design of our qualification.

    National Border Police Service of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Bulgaria:

    The following responsibilities identified in the Bulgaria situation are covered by the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement:
  • Detect and apprehend state border violators.
  • Identify fraudulent documentation and imposters.
  • Hand over to appropriate authorities.
  • Carry out investigation of crime related to illegal migration and trafficking in human beings.
  • Crime intelligence - collect, process and use information on violations of the state border.
  • Interaction with other stakeholders and other countries.

    The following responsibilities are not covered by the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement as the functions are not required for immigration law enforcement officials in SA:
  • Carry out checks for weapons, explosives and other hazardous materials.
  • Guarding state borders - this is not required as part of the SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement as immigration law enforcement officials do not guard the borders.

    Implementation of National Action Plan for the Adoption of the European ASQUIS related to the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement in 2004:

    Mission: Border and Visa Control at Border

    They rely heavily on interaction with neighbouring countries through agreements to secure land and state borders. They empower police officials with a 12 month training course on visas, migration, deportation, tracing, arrest, checking documents, issuing administrative fines, using centralised data bases and use of technical equipment to detect forgeries. The SA National Certificate in Immigration Law Enforcement adequately covers all these areas. 

  • ARTICULATION OPTIONS 
    This qualification could be taken alongside similar qualifications at the same level, including:
  • National Certificate in Immigration Services - Level 5 - ID 50438
  • National Certificate in Policing - Level 5 - ID 50122
  • National Diploma in Policing - Level 5 - ID 48865
  • National Diploma in Port Control and Admissions - Level 5 - 50419

    This qualification may articulate vertically with:
  • Bachelor: Policing Practices Level 6 - ID 50194

    Qualifying learners may build on this qualification in the field of generic management at level 6. 

  • MODERATION OPTIONS 
  • Providers offering learning towards this qualification or the component unit standards must be accredited by the appropriate ETQA.
  • Moderators must be registered as assessors with the relevant ETQA, or with an ETQA that has a Memorandum of Understanding with the relevant ETQA.
  • Moderation of assessment will be overseen by the appropriate ETQA according to moderation principles and the agreed ETQA procedures. 

  • CRITERIA FOR THE REGISTRATION OF ASSESSORS 
  • Assessors must be registered in terms of the requirements of SAQA and the appropriate ETQA.
  • Registered assessors must have a relevant qualification at NQF level 6 or equivalent and/or be a subject matter expert in this learning area. 

  • NOTES 
    This qualification has been replaced by qualification 66869, which is "National Certificate:Home Affairs", NQF Level 5, 120 Credits.

    Given that Immigration Law Enforcement Officials are often confronted by victims of crime and violence, and given the prevalence of human trafficking, officials need to be sensitised to be able to detect and deal with these problems. Thus suitable electives may be taken in the area of Victim Empowerment, as defined by unit standards that will become available in the future. 

    UNIT STANDARDS: 
      ID UNIT STANDARD TITLE PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL CREDITS
    Core  119661  Demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of human rights and democracy  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  123509  Transport a prisoner  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Core  123508  Administer the movement and sojourn of foreigners in South Africa  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  123484  Analyse the deportation methods of illegal foreigners  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  123487  Carry out immigration law enforcement administration  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  11983  Compile and administer a case docket for investigation purposes  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  11975  Conduct a lawful arrest  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  11976  Conduct a lawful search and seizure  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  117456  Conduct an Investigative Interview  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  8648  Demonstrate an understanding of professional values and ethics  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  120486  Demonstrate physical defensive restraining techniques  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  120491  Demonstrate understanding of Law of Evidence in a policing environment  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  120481  Demonstrate understanding of the Criminal Procedure Act related to policing functions  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  11984  Give evidence in a court of law  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  123501  Interpret current legislation and policies related to Immigration Services in South Africa  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Core  123481  Profile and select illegal foreigners for immigration law enforcement purposes  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  115789  Sustain oral interaction across a wide range of contexts and critically evaluate spoken texts  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Fundamental  115790  Write and present for a wide range of purposes, audiences and contexts  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  110000  Generate information and reports for internal and external use  Level 4  NQF Level 04  10 
    Elective  13947  Motivate a team  Level 4  NQF Level 04 
    Elective  115311  Apply advanced driving skills / techniques in defensive and offensive situations  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  14122  Collate crime intelligence  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  11992  Deal with suspects in the investigation of an alleged crime  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  120479  Demonstrate understanding of community policing  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  15223  Implement training needs for teams and individuals to upgrade skills levels  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  15230  Monitor team members and measure effectiveness of performance  Level 5  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L5 
    Elective  115314  Conduct inspections and control activities  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
    Elective  114868  Demonstrate an understanding of international law in diplomatic context  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 
    Elective  115334  Maintain good relations with internal and external clients  Level 6  Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 


    LEARNING PROGRAMMES RECORDED AGAINST THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    When qualifications are replaced, some of their learning programmes are moved to being recorded against the replacement qualifications. If a learning programme appears to be missing from here, please check the replacement.
     
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    PROVIDERS CURRENTLY ACCREDITED TO OFFER THIS QUALIFICATION: 
    This information shows the current accreditations (i.e. those not past their accreditation end dates), and is the most complete record available to SAQA as of today. Some Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionaries have a lag in their recording systems for provider accreditation, in turn leading to a lag in notifying SAQA of all the providers that they have accredited to offer qualifications and unit standards, as well as any extensions to accreditation end dates. The relevant Primary or Delegated Quality Assurance Functionary should be notified if a record appears to be missing from here.
     
    NONE 



    All qualifications and part qualifications registered on the National Qualifications Framework are public property. Thus the only payment that can be made for them is for service and reproduction. It is illegal to sell this material for profit. If the material is reproduced or quoted, the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) should be acknowledged as the source.